The Baltimore Studio
The Baltimore Studio are no more than LAPD Officers using a voice synthesizer to disguise themselves. This construction is a form of Profiling and Entrapment. Identity is a key. The Studio members are presented as MSM.
Bhakta David Nollmeyer
March 11, 2017
Desert Shores California
Transforming the Presidency and Criminal Justice
Blythe CA Ehrenberg AZ
January 29, 2012
It is prima facie MOEC is the most dominant event history of police work in the United States. I have possibly finished my academic career. On the contrary I would pursue law and human rights if the choice were mine. The role of LGBTi persons will define whether LAPD will survive or be disassembled. This is very serious. I am attempting to put on and leave a credible historic and legal record in my wake. I will be 50.5 on February 2, 2012.
Here are a few papers that I have written:
There is a deterrent effect in exposing abuse. The classic argument of an individual versus the collective and his head of state are strongly represented in this conflict. If I loose equal protection everyone will.
As seen Barack Obama nor front runner Mitt Romney has demonstrated any concern for the well being of the human race or Americans.
Blythe CA Ehrenberg AZ
February 25, 2012
Technological Singularity is the hypothetical date in the future when computational machines achieve superintelligence. This states that artificial intelligence in computers or topologies have achieved and surpassed the capability of humans to think. Hence this means that computers will be superior to humans in designing computers, engineering, manufacturing new drugs, space stations and other similar tasks. Futurists as Ray Kurzweil have hypothesized this date as 2046. This well formed assumption is based on exponential technologies that are doubling every two years.
In contrast Social Singularity is a lesser defined term. It has been loosely used to define social networking to attack social ills as despotism. Arab Spring during 2011 has been widely covered by networking sites as Twitter and YouTube by ordinary individuals and opposition forces in the Middle East. However there are more than one possible definitions that could logically descend from this term.
I am positing that Cambridge University has designed a Social Singularity within state planning for the United Kingdom. This has involved Storyboard technology of theaters of war in the cardinal directions. Content within this movement regards the reconciliation of Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender intersex History or LGBTi. This process and structure is a RICO or Racketeered Influenced Corrupt Organization that is a blackmail and intimidation ring. It is driven by prisoner's dilemma or defection outside of legal laws rather than cooperating with rights within these formal systems as the United Nations or the United States Constitution. To constrain and further extort defection a Chemical Assault Scorched Earth Program has been imposed over one person and the surrounding territoriality which is the jurisdiction of the United States.
This structure is named Mobilization of Empire and Civilization or MOEC.
There have been five presidents to have been blackmailed and extorted since it's manifest function on June 17, 1987:
George HW Bush
George W Bush
The Chemical Assault Scorched Earth is protected by censorship and sanitization by all nationstates. The format is an experiment to gauge what my response would be against the United States government and the alleged proximate cause or Origin, Cambridge Law School and the United Kingdom.
As seen the Social Singularity of MOEC is an antagonistic movement against Technological Singularity is emergent.
The hypothetical legal prosecution of President Barack Obama in 2040 is part of the trajectory of the entire Singularity, both Technological and Social Movement. I was born on August 3, 1961 in Roswell, New Mexico and am one day senior to Obama who was born in Honolulu, Hawaii on August 4, 1961.
History of Singularity
Blythe CA Ehrenberg AZ
March 28, 2012
History of Singularity
Artificial Intelligence as Moral Agent
All phenomena that exists within a manifold must have a history. This is true regardless if there is a sensate or inorganic observer as a computer program. The Singularity Movement both Technological and Cultural has emerged with a planned Chemical Assault Scorched Earth plan designed as an antagonistic movement to Technological Singularity. Technological Singularity is that future date when thinking machines equal than surpass humans. This date has been deduced as 2045 due to exponential specializations as nano technologies.
This preemptive attack on human civilization and life itself is alleged to be the Authorship of Cambridge Law School.
This authorship and proximate cause is operating a prisoner's dilemma defection model which is de facto or illegal. Hence actors which defect to this mover are accomplices. As seen the attack wished to implicate then President Reagan and expose this system.
It appears the strongest members of this group were MSM or Men Same Sex Males.
The strategic mission is Gay Marriage and vindication of the LGBTi Movement. Hence a moral agent must act against an immoral agent or it ceases to be a moral agent. In this regards it becomes dependent and under the color of morality or law.
This attack became totally cognizant to then President Ronald Reagan on June 17, 1987. This Gay Militia which is alleged to be operating out of Los Angeles California Police Department damaged the president, themselves, LAPD, State of California (Governor Deukmejian), federal government and the State of Delaware (Governor Carper). This also preempted LGBTi History. There are many other examples of collateral damage and latent dysfunction that have occurred.
The system is being continued by MSM persons. The continuum appears to wish to escalate the illegal activity implicating both sworn and moral agents. As seen President Barack Obama would be 79 years old in 2046, six year before 2046 or Technological Singularity.
President Barack Obama is the target of Technological Singularity.
In the instance of computing and Artificial Intelligence or AI it is clear also that denying the empirical history of the United States and all of it's relevant subspecies seriously damages the competency of a supercomputer to develop superintelligence and act as moral agent for the positive transformation of the human species to a higher level of consciousness. Since the moral agent is part of the study of moral philosophy it would be irrational for this AI program to deny what has occurred and the damage to human life, life writ large and the environment of the earth in which we live.
It has clearly narrowed the most likely success for machine superintelligence to the engineering and hard sciences not the liberal arts or social science.
The lack of volition in Technological Singularity, moral agents, and sworn officials themselves have cornered Obama and actors born 1955 and later.
There is a strong likelihood of victims stepping forward. This in the main appears to be HIV AIDS positive and Hepatitis C positive persons. Nationstates, corporations, groups, or persons acting as fiduciary for various concerns are likely to act before 2046. If any group group proclaims Singularity without Official Recognition of this Chemical Assault Scorched Earth it is a fraud on it's face.
(I am writing from Blythe CA Ehrenberg CA as March 25, 2012. The Colorado River is contaminated and if you touched the wheat growing in a field here it would burn your hand.)
In degree history is the last court. The software developers to date March 2012 have made no effort to recognize a crime that is legally punishable in the United States and internationally. IBM's Watson, a supercomputer who some have posited as having a narrow AI is reflective of the problematic facing Singularity thinkers.
There is pandemic corruption in both the United States and the Universal System of the United Nations.
As I have been the natural person whose citizenship has been alienated (Bill of Rights) I view any academic sanitization or journalistic censorship as an environmental threat, hence those uncontrollable forces outside my person that I have no power to act over. As seen I have already filed over twenty six federal civil suit's that were designed to be read as criminal. I have attempted to engage most competent sworn federal officials where I have resided over two months since June 1987.
Personally this will focus mainly on California, Arizona, Delaware, New Mexico, and Nevada as I am trapped mainly in the deserts and the mountains.
This activity develops as Targeted Chemical Assaults TCAs and escalates into the full blown manifest Chemical Assault Scorched Earth that has and is in the cognition of the Irrationalist United States Presidents (Reagan Obama) of whom Barack Obama is now seeking his second term in 2012.
The legal dynamics of sworn competent officials refusing to perform their legal duties to protect life, limb, and property develop an emergent scenario resembling a Nuremberg Trial under United States Federal Law.
Here if the United States Attorney General is duty bound to prosecute all crimes in this nation-state a truly autonomous moral agent must be opposed to activity in which I would state all 313 million persons have a claim against LAPD, State of California, United States, and the United Kingdom.
The latter concerns the allegation that the proximate cause or authorship is Cambridge Law School.
The Alan Turing Centennial is June 23, 2012. There is an allegation that his persecution as a Gay male is attributable to this mechanism. It appears that Mr. Turing was steered skill sets and works that helped develop his career. I am not clear about how issues other than his Gay orientation ran him afoul in the United Kingdom. His cracking of the Enigma Code alone gives a reasonable foundation that he was exposed to United Kingdom intelligence during WWII at very sensitive level.
I am an undergraduate student in Social Sciences and pre law. I have a GPA of 3.27 with 161 credit's and a University of California transferable GPA of 3.42 151 credit's. I need six classes to graduate with a BA. I will probably opt to retake three more courses to bring the 3.27 up closer to 3.50. After taking 9 courses both GPAs should be near 3.50 and by merit have my standing in consideration for at least a half to full scholarship at law or other graduate programs.
The stalking and defamation of my person is unprecedented in the United States and the world.
In an ethnographic sense my ability to survive and mount a credible legal challenge to LAPD and President Obama et al. is considerable. This is in prejudice to the Gay Militia and their accomplices regardless of sexual orientation and preferences.
The history, epistemology, and methodology of Singularity is suspect.
Here by acknowledging that a Social Singularity has occurred as worldwide censorship and sanitization under a controller that is blackmailing and extorting actors to promote it's interest through Technological Singularity or a suboptimal Nash Equilibrium of Technological Singularity is a powerful statement of fact against the selective attention that is marginalizing the movement. The non action by Technological Singularity thinkers of this era set the stage for future moral agents to correct their errors and suboptimal performance.
As seen factual empirical content that could be easily taught by an AI program is being developed. If the courts were to work this Chemical Assault Scorched Earth would of have been reduced to only TCAs or Targeted Chemical Assaults. I state this because theses acts are not weaponized military actions but bathtub clandestine events that any person acting with defection from the police could carry out with common items. It appears that controlled substances as hydrochloric acid and other cleaning agents are being easily purchased through LAPD and used to attack my person through mutual aid violations with other police agencies.
Crimes against humanity, treason, obstruction of justice, intimidation of a witness, and racketeering form basic parameters of legal claims. Hence the ethics and legal basis for a moral agent to proffer a transparent explanation become constrained under blackmail and intimidation. My immediate recommendation is that all Singularity Groups form a Law Section.
Hence under the Paradigm of Laws: 1. Eternal Law 2. Natural Law 3. Positive Law, how would a faith, philosophy and nation-state deal with Technological Singularity?
How will a nationstate or legal supranational regime as the United Nations, Organization of American States or Arab League reconcile an attack by a Gay Militia within the Anglo American structure which has emerged as NATO?
Rationality is already being considered by many Singularity concerns. This could easily be reconciled under Natural Law or reason.
An actor who is under defection to the Origin or proximate cause ceases to be a moral agent. Hence co opting faith based systems, philosophy and academic departments, think tanks, and sworn public officials increases a marginal degradation of the structural state and those natural persons and their occupations within such.
The entangling of Homeland Security or the police escalates the attack. Here the antagonistic movement of the Chemical Assault Scorched Earth against engineering achievements as cloud computing, solid state drives, 4G mobile broadband, the lowering of costs of solar panels to $4 per watt, better lithium ion batteries, better pharmaceuticals, better protocols for the detection of diseases especially those worm based maladies is neutralized.
Volition to uphold primary rights by sworn secondary law officers would protect the social and natural environment to develop the human race under a system of laws.
The Social Contract Theory is the accepted model for a Constitution. The rule of law guarantees liberty for the individual for their spiritual, moral, social, and economic life.
If those capacitated to act as moral agents due not do such but endeavor under the color of moral right and law than they are illicit and criminal themselves.
It is folly to work under extortion and blackmail. This attacks the Constitution and rights itself. Hence this is the construction of Totalitarianism and a Police State.
The Classic Argument of the State versus the Individual is embedded within the emergence of Technological and Social Singularity.
If Cambridge Law School is the authorship then professors who develop these de facto crimes and teach in the open will cease to occur. If LAPD is the proximate cause running the attack then regular rank and file officers also will no longer be safe on basic duty.
LAPD should be quarantined and all communications emanating and exiting their headquarters should be monitored especially mutual aid.
In abstraction a very large police agency that can make contacts with other departments is the only logical actor due to the amount of work one person can perform. LAPD has about 8000 officers.
As time passed the calculation of events creates a multiplier fallacy which implicates more individuals and groups. Hence the original target of Ronald Reagan has shifted from conservatives to liberals who support Gay Marriage and are highly instrumental in fighting openly for such as California Lieutenant Governor Gavin Newsom and Attorney General Kamala Harris.
Cambridge as Proximate Cause
If Cambridge Law School is proximate cause, authorship, and Origin then it is not a moral agent. The criminal knows his own crime. Two simultaneous eternities cannot exist. Hence an eternal association such as the United States Constitution is a perpetual act designed to incorporate moral agents to carry out it's laws, rules, and directives to protect the citizenship of the members of this commonwealth. A conspiracy driven by defection is an attack on it's sovereignty. Two simultaneous eternities cannot exist. A legal constitution can only be changed by itself. The designing of a conspiracy is an attack on positive law.
It would be impossible for a system of crime to be created and implemented with the goal of attacking the human race with a Chemical Assault Scorched Earth through the United Kingdom and the United States as described previously.
It is clear that the authorship has obstructed justice at a very high degree implicating five presidencies Reagan Obama. This activity would have needed many years of planning and the recruitment of thousands of persons over time. The criminalization of the population through quid pro quos is a defense mechanism of MOEC. Hence those persons especially sworn officers of the state whose careers have emerged through defection are least likely to step forward as moral agents. By arranging for proxies to attack and recruit more informants the system has morphogenetic expansion. As seen any enemies of Anglo American and LGBTi interests are strengthened. What is dangerous is that this mechanism is designed at the present to focus on marginalization tactics which would permit the Chemical Assault to continue with a complement of repertoire that is inclusive of crime, disease, and economics that is currently explained as not having a state directed authorship.
Hence the Chemical Assault Scorched Earth would have a debilitating effect on the 700,000 known HIV AIDS positive persons. There are an estimated 3 million Hepatitis B or C persons infected. This is 3.7 million persons out of 313 million persons in the United States. The notion of AI emerging with superintelligence is a red herring or distraction from conditions of reality. Currently IBM's Watson is studying cancer at a leading institution in the United States. This population is under attack also.
By using defection Cambridge is able to recruit informants to sanitize it's criminal actions.
Cambridge in the theater of history it has scripted a moral decadence with no leader capacitated to restore a renaissance. Technological Singularity is being promoted as an iconoclastic future event that will sweep away all human levels of performance.
What MOEC has done in the concrete is damage the United States, it's Constitution, president and sworn competent officials under an unprecedented Social Singularity with a Chemical Assault Scorched Earth.
The invertebration of the Paradigm of Laws has also negated any moral agent from acting in the concrete to restore the Constitutional life.
Is the Singularity Movement a cover for New Fascism? In theory every weapon that is developed will be used. Technological Singularity is being nearly preached as panacea for many of humanities problems.
The Joe Virus or cell of LAPD officers driving this event are Gay Irrationalist Gay Know Nothing. This label is the creation of MOEC thinkers. I am being harassed daily by rambling homosexual polymorphous perversity speech.
As a heterosexual male I do not need to promote coitus, oral sex, and the masturbation of females. The Joe Virus is a bottom ten percent contagion aimed at the upper ten percent. Differential Association is a social based theory stating that crime is transferred through language or speech. TedTalks a Singularity based discussion group which regularly promotes speeches and videos appears prima facie as a target for the Gay Militia.
I am a competent social scientist. TedTalks will be approached on this issue.
The History of Singularity and the develop of moral agents is developed in the concrete. In basic abstract methodologies one attempts to research to find laws or principles that are antecedent to consequent acts to develop the systematization of that discipline.
In the administration of justice a code of officer must respond to a hot crime scene that is in continuo. The crime must be brought under control by due process and equal protection so that the victim, criminal, third parties all have their rights maintained. Empirical evidence is gathered and this Statement of Facts must be presented with Points of Law to sustain a complaint and successful prosecution. As seen the moral, ethical, and legal agent all have their distinct boundaries but are extremely similar. In theory acts are mala in se or evil in themselves or mala prohibita or those acts criminalized by statute.
The corpus delecti of a Chemical Assault Scorched Earth operating in continuo since June 17, 1987 in a manifest fashion to the President of the United States.
The discussion of a moral agent is not authentic or congruent to those that proffer such high standards while the mass of persons are being alienated, debilitated, and marginalized here in the United States.
Obama is the Singularity Target
Blythe CA Ehrenberg AZ
April 15, 2012
Barack Obama is the Singularity Target. My authorized position is that Artificial Intelligence is being developed to sanitize Crimes Against Humanity. This is claiming that Cambridge Law School and Gay Irrationalism Gay Know Nothing is behind this endeavor.
To date who can produce authorized records to demonstrate prosecution or an authentic attempt to prevent such. Chief Beck is entirely as are all the police Chiefs on this page.
This is an extremely challenging environment. LGBTi law enforcement to my cognition has nothing to show to date.
The door is open for someone honest to emerge but this does seem likely. Mitt Romney is just as collusive and blind as Obama is to reality.
The corpus delecti of treason has occurred. Under Probable Cause or 50 percent chance of conviction Romney would be arrested and Obama would be impeached.
Obama should live to 2046 when he is 79 years of age. I should of also. This is very unlikely unless the Chemical Assault Scorched Earth halts.
I will pursue Obama and all command level authorities and accomplices throughout history as Simon Wisenthal pursued the Nazis.
I my position is that you have to be willing to oppose 90 percent of the population.
Persons are openly working quid pro quos which are illegal.
I am a heterosexual male who is being attacked by Gay Officers. You are witnessing an honest effort confronting Treason and Crimes Against Humanity.
The United States federal government, State of California, City of Los Angeles, and LAPD are under HUGE LIABILITY due to this attack here and internationally.
If Cambridge Law School is the proximate cause why are they not being identified?
SEARCH AND SEIZURE: A GUIDE TO RULES, REQUIREMENTS, TESTS, DOCTRINES, AND EXCEPTIONS
May 27, 2012
A SEARCH is by definition an invasion of privacy. Prior to Katz v. U.S. (1967), privacy was defined in terms of the trespass doctrine, but since then, a "reasonable expectation of privacy" doctrine has prevailed. Only what people themselves deem "private" and what society recognizes as private are protected. The Fourth Amendment does NOT protect against all invasions of privacy; it only forbids unreasonable searches and seizures.
Technically, the Fourth Amendment says that all searches are to be conducted under authority of a warrant (the warrant rule). Warrants can be issued to search premises (dwellings), vehicles, or persons. The Fourth Amendment also states that probable cause (the probable cause requirement) should form the basis of warrants, supported by oath or affirmation. There are different definitions of probable cause, from what a person of reasonable caution or prudence would believe in connection with a crime or criminal offender to what would make a reasonable person to more probably than not believe a guilty rather than innocent interpretation of facts, hearsay, or a combination of the two. The trend is toward the "more probable than not" test. For example, in informant law, the Aguilar Test (1964) was established approving anonymous informant tips if (a) it could be shown the informant was reliable, and (b) some underlying information could be provided to show how the informant reached the information in their tip. This two pronged test was replaced by a "totality of circumstances" test in Illinois v. Gates (1983) in which a reviewing magistrate uses practical common sense, given all the circumstances set forth in the affidavit, to decide if there is a fair probability that contraband or evidence of a crime will be found in a particular place.
Warrants must be executed promptly (within 48 hours in some states; at least within 10 days in other states) and not usually at night or on Sundays unless otherwise stated. So called "no knock warrants" can be issued if the "exigent circumstances" test is met; i.e., evidence can be easily destroyed or flushed, a hostage situation exists, and the case involves explosives, emergencies, danger to officers, or unusual circumstances. All warrants, not just no knock warrants, authorize the use of force to enter a dwelling if police are denied entrance or no one is there to admit them. The "demand and refusal" element of the "knock and announce" rule has been eliminated. A warrant must include a street address and description of the location; e.g., 110 S. Main, a two story white house. A warrant for one side of a duplex does not authorize search of the other side, and the same is true of apartments. A warrant must describe as fully as possible all the things to be looked for in connection with a crime that has been committed or is about to be committed. The descriptions must be specific; e.g., one black 21' Panasonic TV, serial number 63412X. The described item(s) are usually provided in boilerplate fashion on the warrant form itself (with an indication to strike inapplicable paragraphs). Finally, a valid warrant must be signed by a judge. The most important thing about searches is that their scope must be narrow. General, exploratory searches are unconstitutional.
A SEIZURE is by definition the deprivation of liberty, or the enjoyment in exercising dominion or control over a thing, be it property or person. Police can temporarily seize private property for about 14 days (this varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction), and usually hold it indefinitely if it is material evidence in a criminal case. Temporary seizure or detention of a person is allowed for shorter periods of time, usually 72 hours. Asset forfeiture laws have been recently applied in criminal cases, to show that crime does not pay. While these are technically civil law procedures that exist on both federal and state levels, seized property can be auctioned off for money to fund the criminal justice system, or in some cases, used by the police departments themselves in operations; e.g., as an undercover vehicle. With asset forfeiture, the crime must fall under the R.I.C.O. (Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organization) Act, or be part of on ongoing criminal enterprise designed to be profitable, such as drug dealing. In most cases, a person who has had their assets seized under forfeiture laws must make a showing of good cause why the property should be returned in civil court within 90 days.
The EXCLUSIONARY RULE and common law time frames provide protection against unreasonable seizures. The purpose of the exclusionary rule (briefly, evidence illegally obtained cannot be legally admitted), first created by Weeks v. U.S. (1914) and made applicable to the states via Mapp v. Ohio (1961) is often misunderstood. It is NOT designed to protect the constitutional rights of suspects, but to penalize police and deter police misconduct. The exclusionary rule is a judicial mandate designed to help professionalize the police; it's a social experiment, not a guarantee of constitutional safeguards. It's a rather harsh rule, the reasoning being that it is better to let some of the guilty go free so that the majority of people would benefit from more thorough and professional police work. The Court appears to be waiting for social science to answer when this goal is reached, but it represents an under researched topic in Justice Studies, if indeed, it is researchable at all. The exclusionary rule also subsumes the FRUIT OF THE POISONOUS TREE DOCTRINE, first established in Silverthorne Lumber Co. v. U.S. (1920). According to this doctrine, not only is evidence illegally seized inadmissible, but any evidence or testimony obtained later as a result of the illegally seized evidence is inadmissible. This has been somewhat weakened by the good faith exception (explained below), but it basically means that any secondary, incriminating facts or leads discovered later in a case from an earlier, illegal seizure are inadmissible. If the "tree" is tainted, the "fruit's" are also tainted. This usually results in not enough evidence to go to trial. One loophole is the purged taint exception, which applies if the defendant broke the chain of evidence themselves, and came forward with new evidence, like a spontaneous confession, about a related crime. Another loophole is the inevitable discovery doctrine (also explained below).
For many reasons, not necessarily only because of harshness, there have evolved numerous EXCEPTIONS (precedents) to the warrant rule and the exclusionary rule. Often, these precedents are interrelated in actual police practice. These are listed below by their technical names in alphabetical order:
Automobile Search Exception: First established in Carroll v. U.S. (1925) as part of Prohibition era laws allowing roadblocks and checkpoints. Later, amended to allow free and unfettered passage on public highways. Police can generally open luggage and parcels in the passenger compartment; a search of the trunk requires special justification. However, Chambers v. Moroney (1970) ruled that an automobile search need not be made immediately. All that is necessary in a probable cause stop is to confiscate the parked vehicle after the driver has been arrested, take it to headquarters, and do a complete inventory on it's contents. Any and all evidence found in the vehicle can be legally seized. Inventory and search are technically different, but in practice, both are done at the same time. (See Moving Vehicle Probable Cause Doctrine and Inventory Search Exception).
Border Search Exception: The basic idea here is that special attention should be paid to a nation's borders and certain transportation routes. For this reason, immigration points and international airports can search and seize (for as long as 16 hours) on the basis of reasonable suspicion rather than probable cause. Also allowed is "drug courier profiling" of suspicious persons that may be transporting contraband along a commonly used Interstate or airport for drug trafficking. Profiling stops have also been authorized for people who appear to be soliciting prostitutes.
Chimel Rule: Briefly, a warrantless search is allowed if incidental (simultaneous) to a lawful arrest, i.e., serving an arrest warrant without a search warrant. Only the area under a suspect's immediate control can be searched, and this can be for evidence that has nothing to do with the cause for arrest. Also a "protective sweep search" is appropriate for dwelling areas, such as closets or closed doors for hidden attackers. The Chimel derives from Chimel v. California (1969), a case where police literally ransacked a house. Chimel also applies to hot pursuit or chase situations where a suspect can be taken back to show the spot where weapons or drugs were discarded, but this more often involves a public safety exception to the Miranda Rule. Strip searches (down to the underwear) can ONLY be done when the prisoner is in a secure facility. Vehicles used to transport prisoners MUST be searched prior and after transport in order to prove something was discarded during transport. Cavity searches can be done at booking, but are best left to medical personnel, but some departments allow officers to do them.
Consent Search ExceptionA person who possesses common authority or has frequent access over the premises; e.g., girlfriend, landlord, etc. can authorize a consent search within limit's (NOT the whole house) if their waiver of rights is voluntary (they understand it can be revoked at anytime during the search) and made intelligently (NOT just in acquiescence or mere submission to police authority). Many departments require signing a Miranda type consent form. Silence, simple nodding of the head, or waving the police in an open door is NOT consent.
Crime Scene Search Exception: Police have enormous powers regarding the securing of crime scenes. They can order people to move or not to move about. They can "freeze" suspicious situations. They can commandeer (immediately seize) property, vehicles, or residences for evidence, transport, or temporary headquarters. Force can also be used to prevent contamination of the scene. A restriction at crime scenes and other searches is the elephant in a matchbox doctrine, which requires searchers consider the probable size and shape of the evidence they seek, since large objects cannot be concealed in tiny areas. Ignoring this doctrine usually results in leaving the place a shambles.
Emergency Situation Exception: The letter of the law regarding warrants need not be applied strictly in situations with probable cause and no time to secure a warrant; e.g., shots being fired or a person screaming. Applies to searches that must be conducted immediately, and has been extended to include fingernail scrapings, blood samples, and urine tests. A danger to life, or danger of escape should exist, but most often, used in situations where delay would cause destruction or removal of evidence.
Good Faith Doctrine: Originally emerged as exception to exclusionary rule and is now the most rapidly expanding exception. It was first applied when police executed what they believed to be valid warrants later overturned on technical grounds due to fault of the issuing magistrate in assessing probable cause and nexus (the connection between PC and accused's participation in elements of criminal offense). Based on two cases in 1984, U.S. v. Leon and Massachusetts v. Sheppard, the doctrine holds that if police are truly unaware they are violating someone's 4th Amendment rights, the evidence can be admitted anyway. This has been extended somewhat to apply in situations where police acting "under color of law" due to existence of a specific state statute; e.g., safety inspections, proceeding with a warrantless search because application of the exclusionary rule in these situations does not coincide with purpose (deterrence) of the exclusionary rule.
Inevitable Discovery Doctrine: Designed as a built in loophole to the fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine and based on Nix v. Williams (1984), the doctrine holds that if illegally obtained evidence would in all likelihood eventually have been discovered anyway, it is admissible. For example, if police obtained an illegal confession and cooperation from a suspect in locating where bodies were buried, AND police were conducting their own independent search of an area for bodies but had given up, the help of the suspect in locating the bodies would be a natural extension of proper police methods as if the police had never terminated their search. Although the confession is illegal, the dead bodies are admissible evidence. The reasoning behind inevitable discovery (not to be confused with inadvertent discovery in Plain View Doctrine) is to restore police to the same position they would have been if no police error or misconduct had occurred.
Inventory Search Exception: When police take custody of property, proper inventory procedures allow searches to protect the owner’s property, protect the department from disputes and claims, protect the police and public from danger (check for bombs, etc.), and to determine the owner's identity. Also called Impoundment Doctrine because anytime police confiscate something that has been abandoned, is blocking traffic, is illegally parked, or has been left without a driver after the driver has been arrested (see Automobile Exception), police are usually required by law or regulation to search the contents while impounding it. Colorado v. Burtine (1987) does not give police carte blanche authority to search all impounded objects indiscriminately, only when a specific inventory is justified.
Moving Vehicle Probable Cause Doctrine: An automobile, truck, van, motorhome, boat, airplane or other movable object can be searched IF there is (a) probable cause (b) the vehicle is moving or about to be moved, and (c) a warrant cannot be readily obtained. Every part of the vehicle can be searched, including closed containers in the trunk, although special justification is needed for trunks. Diminished expectations of privacy are assumed to exist with moving vehicles. Probable cause can be easily established via police dogs, who have a sense of smell six million times greater than that of a human.
Open Fields Doctrine: Only houses, papers, effects and "curtilage" are protected; open fields even if amounting to trespass are NOT. Areas outside the "curtilage" can be searched; e.g., a barn 50 yards away. "Curtilage" may or may not be a fence. It depends on (a) proximity to house (b) whether area is within an enclosure surrounding the home (c) the uses to which the area is put, and (d) any steps taken to protect the area from observation. For example, a garbage or trash can placed out on the curb is NOT protected; a garbage or trash can on the porch needs a warrant to be searched. Derived from Oliver v. U.S. (1984) and upheld in U.S. v. Dunn (1992). Abandoned effects, wastepaper baskets, and public places, including bathroom stalls, are NOT protected.
Plain View Doctrine: This refers to police use of their senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Anything detected by these means does NOT have Fourth Amendment protection if officers are lawfully present when they detect something by these means. A number of subdoctrines have developed, such as "plain feel", "plain smell", and "plain hearing", and the current controversy is whether electronic aids for the senses constitute a search or should be part of the Plain View Doctrine. In general, evidence of ANOTHER crime that is immediately observable without a search is seizable. In 1971, the standard was "inadvertent discovery" (not necessarily looking for anything incriminating; e.g., looking inside car to read VIN number or fix fuse and seeing weapon under dashboard or car seat) but due to courts being unable to define "inadvertent discovery", this standard was abolished in Horton v. California (1990) and replaced with a three prong test: (a) officer engaged in lawful activity at the time; (b) the object's incriminating character was immediately apparent and not concealed, and (c) the officer had lawful access to the object and it was discovered accidentally. For example, in a roadside stop, the driver opens a glove box to get their registration or proof of insurance, and the officer views what in his or her experience looks like a container of drugs or a weapon.
Private Individual Search Exception: If the police come upon evidence obtained by employees of a private carrier, such as Federal Express, bicycle delivery, rental car or limousine service (to name a few), or private security (hotel detectives, department store security guards, etc.) no warrant is required and the evidence is admissible. Such private individuals are not subject to the same Fourth Amendment provisions as government officials. This exception applies only if the private search for evidence is made without the knowledge or participation of a government agent. This exception applies to residences as well as public places. If, for example, a girlfriend makes a private inspection of her boyfriend's closet, finds stolen guns, and turns them over to police, the evidence is admissible against the boyfriend. Where controversy exists is in the definition of "government officials",certain quasi public police departments (i.e., port police, transit police) are allowed to do warrantless searches, and the Court has held that probation officers, although government officials for most purposes, have the right to justify searches under less than probable cause.
Stop & Frisk Rule (Terry v. Ohio): A frisk or patdown of the outer clothing is NOT technically a search, but whenever police restrain a person's freedom to walk away, a seizure has occurred. To frisk, police must have "reasonable suspicion" (not merely a can't put into words hunch) and the frisk must be for weapons only, unless under the plain feel exception. Furtive movements, inappropriate attire, carrying suspicious objects, vague answers to questions, refusal to identify oneself, and appearing to be out of place are all grounds for articulable suspicion. This has been extended to roadside stops, luggage, suspicion of narcotics possession (in many cases, also requiring a trained dog to establish probable cause). Often produces evidence other than weapons that come into "plain view", demonstrating the interrelationships among these precedents.
Student Search Exception: The Court has maintained that schools, in order to maintain an atmosphere of learning, must have eased restrictions on search by school officials. The standard is reasonableness under all circumstances, which means that there must be reason to believe a search would turn up evidence, the procedure must be related to the search for evidence (and not for disciplinary purposes), and the search is not intrusive nor discriminatory on the basis of age, sex, or race. Numerous cases been upheld, but New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985) is significant.
About.com Civil Liberties Guide to Search and Seizure
Nolo's Understanding Search and Seizure Law
Creamer, S. (1980). The Law of Arrest, Search and Seizure. NY: Holt.
McWhirter, D. (1994). Search, Seizure, and Privacy. Phoenix: Oryx Press. Last updated: 06/25/03
Lecture List for Constitutional Law
Stevens, M. (2003). Search and Seizure: A Guide To Rules, Requirements, Tests, Doctrines, And, Exceptions. Retrieved May 16, 2012: http://faculty.ncwc.edu/mstevens/410/410lect14.htm
The Collapse of Homeland Security
June 26, 2012
Under Janet Napolitano the performance of law officers has degraded to levels equivalent to History's worst actors. Part of Barack Obama's legacy will be the internal damage here in the United States especially California, Arizona, and Nevada. Napolitano has been US Attorney and Governor in Arizona. It appears that LAPD. the federal government and the states mentioned will incur most of the criminal and civil liability.
The use of informant stalkers further complicates the damage along with corporate actors who are guilty and as well as those seeking damages.
The teaching of the Administration of Justice is a strawman. There are perhaps 550,000 sworn law officers in this country yet none have stood forward. All appear to be doing far better than the average American.
When a nation's law officers fall away it is impossible for that nation to flourish.
The United States is in a bubble. The structural state is resilient. However these bubbles are appearing more the work of deliberate creation than the unseen hand. Obama is depending on security for at least 30 years which would place him at 81 years old. The possibility of persons or corporations wishing to step forward in this time is real. Also there only strawmen in place propping up the sworn officials in this country. It proves the dependency that exists on the one world power and the Anglo American alignment.
Louis Freeh and Sandusky
July 17, 2012
Desert Shores CA
February 13, 2013
Christopher Dorner shootout: Body found in burned cabin
February 12, 2013
A body was found inside the burned-out cabin Tuesday night where Christopher Jordan Dorner was believed to have kept law enforcement authorities at bay before officers fired tear gas into the structure, a source told The Times. The body, which was found in the charred rubble of the mountainside cabin, was not positively identified, the source said. The process of determining whether the body is that of the former Los Angeles Police Department officer could take hours or even days, the source said.
As authorities moved into the cabin earlier Tuesday, they heard a single gunshot.
According to a law enforcement source, police had broken down windows, fired tear gas into the cabin and blasted over a loud speaker, urging Dorner to surrender. When they got no response, police deployed a vehicle to rip down the walls of the cabin "one by one, like peeling an onion," a law enforcement official said.
By the time they got to the last wall, authorities heard a single gunshot, the source said. Then flames began to spread through the structure, and gunshots, probably set off by the fire, were heard.
As darkness descended on the mountainside, Dorner's body had not been found, authorities said. Police were planning to focus their search in the basement area, the source said.
Earlier Tuesday, a tall plume of smoke was rising as flames consumed the wood paneled cabin. Hundreds of law enforcement personnel had swooped down on the site near Big Bear after the gun battles between Dorner and officers that broke out in the snow covered mountains where the fugitive had been eluding a massive manhunt since his truck was found burning in the area late last week.
Law enforcement personnel in military style gear and armed with high powered weapons took up positions in the heavily forested area as the tense standoff progressed. One San Bernardino County sheriff's deputy died of his wounds after he and another deputy were wounded in an exchange of gunfire outside the cabin in which hundreds of rounds were fired, sources told The Times. The deputy was airlifted to Loma Linda University Medical Center, where he died of his wounds.
The afternoon gun battle was part of a quickly changing situation that began after Dorner allegedly broke into a home, tied up a couple and held them hostage. He then stole a silver pickup truck, sources said.
Then Dorner was allegedly spotted by a state Fish and Wildlife officer in the pickup truck, sources said. A vehicle to vehicle shootout ensued. The officer's vehicle was peppered with multiple rounds, according to authorities.
Dorner crashed his vehicle and took refuge in a nearby cabin, sources said. One deputy was hit as Dorner fired out of the cabin and a second deputy was injured when Dorner exited the back of the cabin, deployed a smoke bomb and opened fire again in an apparent attempt to flee. Dorner was driven back inside the cabin, the sources said.
During the unprecedented manhunt, officers had crisscrossed California for days pursuing the more than 1,000 tips that poured in about Dorner's possible whereabouts including efforts in Tijuana, San Diego County and Big Bear, and serving warrants at homes in Las Vegas and the Point Loma area of San Diego.
Statewide alerts were issued in California and Nevada, and border authorities were alerted. The Transportation Security Administration also had issued an alert urging pilots and other aircraft operators to keep an eye out for Dorner.
The search turned to Big Bear last week after Dorner's burning truck was found on a local forest road.
At the search's height, more than 200 officers scoured the mountain, conducting cabin by cabin checks. It was scaled back Sunday, about 30 officers were out in the field Tuesday, the San Bernardino County Sheriff's Department said.
Dorner allegedly threatened "unconventional and asymmetrical warfare" against police in a lengthy manifesto that authorities say he posted on Facebook. The posting named dozens of potential targets, including police officers, whom Dorner allegedly threatened to attack, according to authorities.
Records state that the manifesto was discovered by authorities last Wednesday, three days after the slaying of an Irvine couple: Monica Quan, a Cal State Fullerton assistant basketball coach, and her fiancé, Keith Lawrence, a USC public safety officer.
Quan was the daughter of a retired LAPD captain whom Dorner allegedly blamed in part for his firing from the force in 2009.
Open Letter: Professor Schmallenger
Desert Shores CA
March 8, 2013
Dear Professor Schmallenger,
I am writing you today over my concern for the concrete performance of Homeland Security Officers (law enforcement), the study of Administration of Justice, and the certification process for sworn code officers.
Schmalleger's philosophy of both teaching and writing can be summed up in these words: "In order to communicate knowledge we must first catch, then hold, a person's interest, be it student, colleague, or policymaker. Our writing, our speaking, and our teaching must be relevant to the problems facing people today, and they must in some way help solve those problems."
As seen there is an in continuo Chemical Assault Scorched Earth ongoing in the United States since June 17, 1987. I am just west of the Salton Sea, California. This inland body of water has been despoiled on two presidential elections and swearing in ceremonies of Barack Obama.
The allegation is that LAPD is operating this usurpation as a Gay Militia with various nom de guerras.
The creation of the Homeland Security has done nothing to secure Americans. Homeland Secretary Janet Napolitano has been derelict since she was a US Attorney and Governor of Arizona. Vice President Biden and Napolitano are two of the most de facto and corrupt sworn officials in this nation's history.
In California POST Certification is used to qualify officers. Most have about 60 degrees of college credit.
I have taken Intro To Administration of Justice, Criminal Law, Criminal Procedures, Forensic Science, Multicultural Diversity, and Criminology. I have seen no recognition of what is likely treason, obstruction of justice in a RICO entrapment.
The American President is under the color of law.
Who is Obama and his predecessors from Reagan onward shielding from prosecution.
There is no renunciation of the conspiracy by any actor writ large.
How are large quantities of chemicals being deposited into waterways, the air, and food product from the factory?
Are system prescribes that criminal actors be prosecuted and victims compensated.
At issue is the certification of code officers in Administration of Justice programs nationwide.
If officers have 60 units of credit and many have an AA degree or better, what good is the effort if actors have undermined the credible of the American Policeman?
It appears that cells of LAPD officers are violating mutual aid violations with other agencies to destabilize the United States.
Why are Administrative of Justice text writers not confronting this abuse?
Thank you for your consideration.
Bhakta David Nollmeyer
February 17, 2013
Desert Shores CA
Mobilization of Empire and Civilization
MOEC: Mobilization of Empire and Civilization
Trajectory of Criminal Justice
May 28, 2013
The trajectory of Criminal Justice in theory and the concrete are being defined by MOEC. An informant based Undermining Program is capable of blackmailing and hostaging the President of the United States. There is no apparent intent or act from Homeland Secretary Napolitano. The creation of Homeland Security after 9-11 is inept in practice.
The Mythology of the American Policeman is over. The damage radiating from the police to natural persons is reminiscent of Sparta.
Totalitarianism is the boundary for the organization of the nationstate in this century.
Law Enforcement theorist have to find the will to confront reality.
The police states of Eastern Europe and the chaos in Latin America appear to have been directed by MOEC also.
The current confrontation in Syria is very close to drawing in Lebanon. The French state they have journalists who have witnessed government soldiers in chemical warfare gear ignite chemical bombs in Syria.
Obama's posture on Chemical warfare has never been credible.
Supreme Court Supports DNA Sampling
June 8, 2013
The most significant news from the Court this week is its five to four decision in Maryland v. King, holding that Maryland's DNA Collection Act, which permits the police to take DNA from people arrested on suspicion of serious crimes and compare it to a database of DNA samples from unsolved crimes, does not violate the Fourth Amendment's prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures. The Court's opinion, written by Justice Kennedy, holds that the DNA testing procedure is minimally intrusive because it only requires a cheek swab, and because people detained for serious offenses have diminished expectations of privacy anyway. Analogizing the DNA swab to photographs and fingerprinting, the Court further held that the procedure serves the important government interest of facilitating the identification of suspects in custody and is therefore reasonable under the Fourth Amendment.
Justice Scalia joined by Justices Ginsburg, Sotomayor, and Kagan took the relatively rare step of reading a fiery dissent from the bench, arguing that because the purpose of the DNA test is not identification, but investigation of crimes, the Fourth Amendment does not permit the police to take and test the samples without a warrant. The dissent has become an instant classic, as Justice Scalia blasts the DNA Collection Act as creating a "genetic panopticon" and excoriates the majority for turning a blind eye to the true purpose of DNA testing. The case has drawn attention because of the unusual division among the Justices: conservative hero Justice Scalia sharply criticized the pro police ruling, while the more liberal Justice Breyer broke ranks to side with the conservative majority.
The most significant implication of the Court's decision is that DNA testing for arrestees may become ubiquitous. According to the opinion, twenty eight states presently have laws similar to the Maryland DNA Collection Act. Expect that number to go up. It is also likely that at least a few states will try to push the boundaries on this issue by authorizing DNA sampling in a broader range of situations for example, for all arrestees, rather than only those brought in for serious offenses. Readers discussing the case at cocktail parties may speculate about whether states will go even further than that, requiring DNA swabs for anybody trying to enter a secure government building, or obtain welfare benefits. And of course, the case raises a litany of fascinating questions, including whether society’s interest in cracking unsolved crimes justifies suspicionless DNA testing, and more broadly whether advances in technology that enable the government to gather significant amounts of data rapidly and with minimal physical intrusion should be subject to less Fourth Amendment scrutiny. The Court's answer appears to be "yes" to both questions.
Garry Kasparov: World's Greatest Chess Player
June 27, 2013
Here is my long personal article on my decision (and mostly accidental statement!) on not returning to Russia for the time being.
I cannot fight Putin from a cage, whether it's my home in Moscow or a jail cell.
Bringing international sanctions against Putin's cronies and officials is a key weapon and I can only do this work if I am free to travel.
1963 April 13, Garry Kimovich Kasparov was born in Baku, Azerbaijan, then part of the USSR.
1968 Age 5, taught by his father, Kasparov begins playing chess.
1976 Age 12, in January, Kasparov wins Soviet Junior Championship and repeats one year later.
1980 Age 17, Kasparov wins World Junior Championship and earns Grandmaster status.
1984 Challenged Karpov for the world title, resulting in the longest and most famous match in chess history.
After five months, the President of the International Chess Federation called the match off citing player fatigue.
1985 Age 22, Kasparov beats Karpov and becomes youngest World Champion in history: Moscow Nov 9th, 1985.
1985 Kasparov becomes World’s #1 rated player for the first time and from January 1986 retains the #1 rating until retirement in 2005.
1990 Kasparov tops 2800 rating, then the chess equivalent of breaking the 4 minute mile. With this leap he also surpassed the legendary Bobby Fischer's record rating.
1995 Seventh world title match against Vishy Anand on 108th Floor of the World Trade Center where then Mayor Rudi Giuliani makes first move in the match.
1996 to 97 Kasparov and IBM's Deep Blue each win one match. Kasparov in Philadelphia in 1996 and IBM in New York in 1997. IBM refuses a rematch and dismantles the machine in 1998.
1999 Age 36, attains 2851 ELO rating, a record that stood until December 2012, seven years past his retirement.
2000 Loses the world championship title in London to protégé and fellow Russian Vladimir Kramnik.
2002 The Kasparov Chess Foundation is launched in New York City with the goal of introducing chess into the education system. As of 2012 over 5000 schools in all 50 states use the KCF curriculum.
2002 Wins Linares to make it 10 super series tournament victories in a row.
2003 Kasparov plays two major computers matches, both drawn. One of the matches was unusual because Kasparov wore 3D glasses and spoke his moves without ever touching the board.
2004 Garry Kasparov elected Co chairman of the ALL RUSSIA CIVIL CONGRESS.
2005 Wins the Wimbledon of Chess in Linares for the 9th time in 16 years on March 10th. At a closing press conference he announced his retirement from professional competitive chess.
2006 In May he founded the UNITED CIVIL FRONT OF RUSSIA, a pro democracy organization opposed to the crackdown on rights by Vladimir Putin. He is still the UCF chairman and a prominent opposition leader.
2007 Speaks to audience of thousands at the World Business Forum at famous at Radio City Music Hall in New York City. After his lecture on decision making and creativity Kasparov receives a standing ovation.
2007 Kasparov’s book on decision making, "How Life Imitates Chess," is published. It is quickly published in over 20 languages.
2007 Kasparov is arrested and jailed for five days after co-leading an opposition march in Moscow.
2008 to 2012 Kasparov expands speaking engagement themes to technology, innovation, and the combination of man+machine. Invited by Google, IBM, Fujitsu, GE, Palantir, Pegasystems, and other tech firms.
2009 Begins collaboration with Silicon Valley luminaries Peter Thiel and Max Levchin focusing on the crisis of technological stagnation and the anti risk culture.
2012 Kasparov Chess Foundation Europe and KCF Africa are launched in Belgium and South Africa.
2012 Kasparov is arrested and beaten by police outside the Moscow courthouse where the Russian punk band Pussy Riot was being sentenced to prison. Kasparov was later acquitted.
2012 Elected to the leadership council of the Russian opposition movement.
Boris Ivanov: Revelation
Interview by Maria Grigoryan
In contrast a one Boris Ivanov has been recently accused of cheating. Ivanov has continued playing. His chess games reflect the Houdini Chess program 2.0 or 3.0.
Bhakta David Nollmeyer
FM Boris Ivanov: Thus far, nothing has been found, nothing! […]
But I am deprived of my right to play based on mere suspicions. […] I have decided to sue everyone to the end!
I will get even with FIDE. I want to clear my name and play chess.
Exclusive interview with Borislav Ivanov, 25, a low-ranked master from Bulgaria, who won five games, drew two others and lost two at a tournament in Zadar, Croatia. The five victories were against four grandmasters and a strong master, and Ivanov soundly defeated them all. Afterwards, Borislav Ivanov was accused of cheating in the Croatian tournament.
What happened in the Zadar Open 2012?
The Zadar Open is a tournament that I've played every year for some time now. Well this was the first time that I tried the A tournament and I think my performance was fantastic although there was so much speculation afterwards.
How did you react to the accusation that you were cheating?
At first I wasn't surprised about the speculations but suddenly they turned very ridiculous. Some people accused me of using technical equipment that only NASA has, I even heard that I had had my own satellite that transmitted moves during the games... this is horrible! I never thought that human imagination can turn so fantastic just because a 2200 ElO player has played some nice games in a tournament
Did the arbiter take your clothes off, or did they just check your pockets?
Well, I know my body is handsome and beautiful, but I didn't find it enough to show them the real sexual affection I have for other people around me, so I just said no, although they checked my pockets very slowly and my jacket and after they found nothing.... well, may be they were a bit disappointed, cause they were 100% sure I was cheating and of course that's a total lie.
How did you manage to beat the Croatian grandmasters?
I don't think there was anything special in my games at all. The Croatian GMs made some horrible mistakes during our games. Of course I practiced a lot with the computer, and after beating Rybka and Houdini by 10-0 each, I was absolutely sure that no one was gonna stop me winning. After all the arbiters were kind of polite and intelligent, you know, the other players weren't though....
Did the arbiters make some mistakes during the chess tournament?
I don't think they made any mistakes at all in the last two rounds they stopped my live streaming because of the speculations, but of course that didn't affect my games much. The most disturbing thing happened on my birthday, the 21st of December! I was kind of celebrating and preparing for a night out to reduce the stress and get rid a bit of the long chess tournament, but the arbiters and the GMs made me a special birthday present, a petition that asks the referee to check if I had any technical equipment on me, one of the best presents I have ever had in my life!
Which is your main profession?
I am actually a student in my home town Blagoevgrad, it's a nice town in South West Bulgaria.
Do you have some other hobby but chess?
Hanging out with friends of mine, visiting night clubs, meeting beautiful girls and so on. [There is a nice picture to illustrate this on the WhyChess page.] Actually, before the Zadar Scandal I wasn't so popular at all, but now I see that the more time is turning the more my popularity rises, I just want to play my own chess style and to have fun playing chess it's still a pity that I am famous for these ridiculous accusations.
Since when do you play chess? Who was your first teacher of chess?
Well I have been playing chess for about ten years, but 2012 was the first time I started learning seriously the chess theory and practicing with a computer. My first chess teacher is my coach Marin Atanasov. He has helped me a lot in my chess progress ever since I have been playing chess. My club is on my side in this scandal, of course and I would like to thank all the people who support me and even make me feel better despite the endless rudeness that I am receiving.
Some people say that you are genius, other that you are cheat, what would you say to them?
Genius or a cheat, that sounds interesting...Well, I'm not a genius, nor a cheat, but just a normal boy that wants to have fun playing chess.