Astronomy is the study of the cosmos as a system and it's components. On a basic level this is the study of the phenomena of our universe that have an origin outside the atmosphere of our earth although these objects may be analyzed on the surface of the planet.
As in all studies of physics, astronomy holds that it's objects have a composition, mass, are localized in a spacetime.
One theory of the astronomer holds that the existing mass of the universe was localized in one place. The pressure exerted on this mass was extreme and it's duration in the state cannot be long. It is postulated that the mass exploded like a bomb.
The sphere model is used to describe the explosion. The origin of the explosion is in the center. Matter is then sent hurtling away in a vector away from this point. This material, a plasma of gases, at certain temperatures will cool thus solidifying under the force of gravity.
The three primary forces of the physical cosmos are 1. Gravity: large objects 2. Electricity: small and large objects 3. Nuclear: small objects.
The forces interact which leads to a state where the gases reach a critical level of gravitation where they ignite and a star begins to rotate on it's axis.
The other masses have velocity in an orbit from the center of the star. The gases and other matter form a disc at the meridian in a plane. These materials also attract each other under the force of gravity. Under the force of gravity planets and moons are formed in the flattened disc which are satellites.
If a critical mass is achieved the core of the satellite will ignite under laws of physics and chemistry. The yield is a molten metal core. The satellite will spin on it's axis. A moon without escape velocity orbits as a satellite around a planet.
Hence other gases that are attracted to the planet or moon that have not achieved escape velocity are trapped and produce an atmosphere.
Other phenomena or events are known as comets or asteroids. If two objects as a planet or moon collide under gravity, the explosion causes the fragments to be relegated to the nearest large body. These phenomena may exist in a belt in a large orbit around a sun or planet. Conversely they may fall into the sun, planet, or moon.
As soon as the fragments pass through the atmosphere of a planet they ignite and are known as falling stars. Most pieces are infinitesimal but can be large pieces of matter.
If the object in this collision has a trajectory around a sun or planet. The phenomena is known as a comet. It's tail is a coma. The comet is most likely the polar icecap of a moon or planet. As the comet journeys through space the ice evaporates giving rise to the coma.
The revolution of an object around it's sun is defined as it's year. The spin of an object on it's axis, it's day. This is a concept of periodization.
The most distant object from a star is the edge of it's solar system. Other events are the gas clouds that are formed when two stars past near one another in interstellar travel.
The star with the larger mass strips material from the other star and gains more matter for the creation of it's solar system. The smaller star continues on it's journey in space.
If the velocity between the two stars is less than escape velocity. A binary star system is created.Now a solar system has formed with major phenomena held in orbit. The entire system moves in a given trajectory through space.
If one were to look above oneself he would see a canopy of stars. If one was located at the North Pole there would be more stars visible than at the South Pole. This is due to trajectories of the stars arising from the initial explosion and one’s relative position to this event.
The observable stars form different patterns these have been identified with various names throughout history. They are known as constellations.
All the stars and constellations form a similar grouping and are named galaxies. Galaxies are moving in a vector away from a central point.
As stars are moving at tremendous velocities, they will not be seen in the same location in the future. The constellations will have changed.
An important phenomena is procession. As one views the night sky, one does so from the vantage point that one has on the surface of the planet in the orbit of a sun. The sun has a trajectory as it travels from the initial explosion. This trajectory permits one to view the sky from a particular angle and only part of it. This panorama repeats itself every 144,000 years. Our earth will return to the same canopy of the sky. The stars will not have the same alignment.
This unique event is procession. The canopy or sphere is divided into 12 houses of which each encompasses 12,000 years.
All events, the galaxy and solar system are moving away from the point of origin at tremendous speeds.
The original mass at conceptions exerts a force of gravity on all phenomena. If these galaxies or solar systems do not have escape velocity, they are destined to return towards the point of origin. This may result in another explosion.
If this is the case then the universe is closed. Phenomena returns to the point of origin. This is the model of the oscillating universe. This is the model that most scholars give credence.
Another theoretical model states that matter returns to the point of origin and a state is achieved less than that of another creation. This is the static model. This is the weakest theory.
The final possible valid theory is the open universal model of endless expansion throughout space.
The dominant function of these theories hinges on escape velocity. The categorization of all matter is ongoing at the research level. It is a given that the expansion is still continuing.
This point is proved by the Doppler Effect that occurs when one moving object passes another. The spectrogram of elements present is red shifted or supports that matter is moving further away. Star Charts that are historical also confirm this position.
At the present a trigonometric calculus formula reveals that no known phenomena in our universe, the collection of galaxies has obtained escape velocity.
So the prize of the astronomer is to perfect his theory of the cosmos. This is a study of astrophysics more than the observation of events by the eye.
The deduction of the Black Hole is one of the highest disciplines. This reflects one of the greatest goals of the body of knowledge within the realm of scientific determinism.
Stars are classified into various categories according to the development, mass, and heat or cooling. Our sun is relatively new and is a small star by mass, a white dwarf. Stars are classified by cooling as from intensity: 1. White 2. Red 3. Brown. Size is referred to as: 1. Giant 2. Dwarf.
Hence stars are white when young and have large amounts of nuclear fuel and are hot. They are red when they are cooling and have consumed a certain amount of their fuel. The brown star is in a state of cooling.
The amount of light visibly detected is known as albedo. This term is applied to all celestial objects, even the moon.
Other important phenomena are the supernova and quasar. As stars start to die, it's material at a certain stage will expand accord to laws of physics. It can be deduced that it's size may double or more. An object that lies within the expansion will be absorbed. The mass of the star has increased.
This is considered to be a normal stage of development of a star. The other planets or events are destined to eventually crash into their sun as they lose escape velocity. All asteroids therefore will lose orbit and fall towards the mass with the greatest gravitational pull.
In the theory of the black hole, the binary star system is of great importance. The fastest moving known matter is light 186,000 mile per second in a vacuum. Electricity moves equivalent to this velocity.
If a certain mass is achieved, another object will lose it's escape velocity. Binary stars revolve around one another. Escape velocity has not been achieved. These stars will supernova and absorb each other or crash into one another.
If this occurs a quasar or black hole may form. Quasars exist at the edge of the universe. It is interesting to note that there are solar systems moving at contrary to the center of the big bang or towards the center having a trajectory that is irrational. A theory is that the oscillation of the solar system may have created a smaller solar system and is seen moving away from the center of the quasar (supernova) in an enigma.
An explanation for the quasar is there may be sufficient mass in the solar system’s orbiting a central point or the supernova captures matter in it's gravitational field resulting in the quasar.
The mass of a black hole creates a gravitational field that will trap light and x rays. As such all matter does nor have escape velocity and will be absorbed increasing mass and force. The site at the center of the black hole is extremely small. Life as we know it would cease to exist. Matter would exist but would be torn apart, the forces of gravity now surpassing the atomic attraction of atoms as well as shredding the neutrons, protons, and electrons. The rendering of these atomic particles yields the subatomic particles such as the neutrino which are now thought to exist at one per square meter.
As this phenomena occurs, it is not visible; only demonstrable by it's effect on other bodies.
The initial explosion as said did not occur at the true center. The continuum of spacetime in which we live is therefore a curved universe resulting from the explosion, trajectories, and a composite field of gravitation.
As phenomena fails to attain escape velocity the universe collapses as matter starts to move towards the original explosion. As this occurs solar systems are drawn to each other. Black holes are formed and increase. This process of indentations occurs in a concept of scaling until all matter is located in one central point.
Economics is a systematic study of arguments regarding converting human and natural resources into goods and services. The creation of wealth and storing such as a value is also considered. This also known as management of a household. This can also be expanded to include a group or political entity. From this argumentation second theories have emerged as the starting point for logical discourse, economics attempting to unifying the theories.
Foremost is the classicist position of Adam Smith in which the supply side theory and monetarism have origins. The Wealth of Nations is the source text. Chamberlain is also sourced later in the development of free trade theories concerning monopolistic competition, and perfect and imperfect markets. There is a laizze faire overtone in the presentation of markets and monetarism in free trade thinking.
In the elaboration of this line one also has to consider banking, income determination, and perspectives of short and long term equilibrium.
Thomas Malthus is a thinker who put forth a theory of autarky, which includes the theory of distribution. This position has been discounted in the past but has useful insights and can be revisited. Tied to this position are moral implications, which exist in philosophy, sociology, and similar course work.
Karl Marx is another economist who similarly argues that economics as a whole affects moral behavior in man. His position of communism is the opposite of capitalism in property ownership, and rent and wage schema.
In 1776 Smith wrote his classic treatise as a discourse against mercantilism, hence the advantages of the division in work, a system of colonies sending raw materials to a mother country in return for finished products.
Money is a wheel of trade. The real wealth of any state is in it's manual labor and is increased by organizing it more efficiently through specialization and accumulating product in the form of capitalization.
As the master of free trade, Smith states the greatest position is derived when economics are held unencumbered by the state and other states. Hence a moral production is greatly increased free from the yoke of taxes which in reality are protectionist to a degree.
Simply, a comparative advantage is discovered in a market. The most efficient producers should produce the good or service regardless of nationality. All is guided by an unseen invisible hand. Labor is absorbed in other markets of the inefficient producers as soldiers who return from war. This reflects a true self adjusting economy.
Maynard Keynes published his general theory of labor, interest, and money in 1936. In simple analysis, the level of efficiency demands for consumers and producer's goods may either fall short or exceed in economic ability to produce. The first case yields unemployment and depression. The second case where demands exceed production yields inflation.
This analysis is based on the purchasing power of an economy, consumers, and over the counter purchasing. The national income is a functional determinant for the demand curve. Overall demand for producers goods, capital goods, depend on profit prospects and financing of capital products.
Keynes is more active in the public policy area especially in the reducing of inflation. Lowering of wages does not create prosperity. This will not erect prosperity but employment reducing purchasing power. Exorbitant raising of wages is inflationary.
Policy suggested in a simple format are such for inflation: 1. Reduce the money supply which will raise interest rates and decrease the demand for consumer goods. 2. Reduce government expenditures decreasing total demand for consumer goods. 3. Raise taxes or sell government securities to the public reducing the purchasing power of the public.
The theory of value attempts to explain why goods exchange at particular prices. Shares distributed demonstrates analytical measures which involves wages of labor, profits of capital, rent of land, and profit of the enterprise.
A distinction between classicist and radical positions is along a theory of value that prices of goods produced and sold under competitive conditions be proportionate to their productive cost. This argument is classicist. The radical position observes the cost of producing products that are secondary or assisting. Hence this latter case is presented by Ricardo and then later Marx postulated that labor and works are integral components defining cost.
Thomas Robert Malthus bases a long run theory of distribution of the price of labor. This theory is based on population. This in it's later format is interpreted as the minimum standard of living which labor feels necessary to support family life.
If wages fall below that level, the growth rate of the labor class will decrease, the decline in supply raising wages. If wages are found to be above, the population will increase. This type of reasoning is similarly applied to capital and profit positions until equilibrium is reached.
Malthus' theory of war is similarly interesting. He argues that the competition for a natural resource or other resource will cause a war when there is depletion and the competition to replace such or seek substitution fail.
This position has been criticized as fatalist towards economic Darwinism. The Lebensraum or living space argument of Hitler with the annexation of Czechoslovakia was derived from this thinking.
Marx maintains a position of communism in his thinking. In his theory of value (labor theory) all distributive shares other than wages must come out of the difference in between what labor produces and earns.
Three factors are involved: 1. Capitalization displaces workers. There is no need to increase wages (central supply) 2. Capitalist would not increase wages. 3. Crisis would prevent wage increases.
Marxist communism is the refutation to classical political economy. Superstructural relations come into existence and production through constitutional law. Communism is more identical to natural law according to Marx.
The dialectic of the argument states the worker class, proletariat alone is necessary, the bourgeois not. The proletariat at this point in time viz. 1850s cannot move without springing all into the air, hence the bourgeois.
The establishment of the bourgeois as the ruling class was the only logical outcome of history. For this Marx was revolutionary. To complete Marxist economic assumptions, the state must control the means of production.
Monopolistic competition is a modern extension of free trade. Such argues from assumptions to define principles, to define efficient economic production. In this argument a utility or need is derived to bring the necessary to produce product or service.
Utilities are prioritized as first, second, and third. An example is such, acreage that has a 90% efficiency rate will be brought into production first. The 80% acreage is brought second. The 70% acreage is brought third.
Management will allow the productive soil of the 1st utility land to produce as necessity incurs. The 2nd utility land of mixed sand, rocks, and location are brought into production next. The 3rd utility land or most arid, least fertile, and distant is brought in last to complete production tables when necessary.
The coining of money is essential to economy. Money or currency is a wheel of trade, a note of value, and a receipt of some wealth. The cumbersomeness of barter gave ride for the need of currency. Theory states that there should some equal amount of wealth as gold for each unit of currency. This is the gold standard. No more units of currency should be minted than gold held in reserve.
The modern system or flexible currency is based more on belief and faith in the soundness in the economics and solvency of a regime. Federal reserve banking controls the aggregates of money through open market operation. The sale of bonds introduces new money into the economy. The federal reserve sets the first interest rate. These government securities, reciprocated by the prime rate of bankers, secondary bond markets, and other markets shape the interest rates and value of currency.
For simple purposes twenty five cents is needed to be held in reserve to print in reserve to print one new dollar. This money is yielded form private bank deposits. The private banking system is an extension of the federal reserve. Currency from other nationalities are held to stabilize money to cancel accounts of international trade.
This schema will be continued at later point in banking.
The supply and demand curves necessitate the crucial axis of market economics. The negative slope is demand descending from the vertical axis. The positive from the axis itself is supply. The intersection of the two such slopes is the equilibrium of the specific interest exchange rate as the case may justify.
This schema can be applied to an individual producer and multiplier to the needs of economic analysis. A variation of this cycle posits a series of small recessions before the appearance of a complete depression.
Innovation occurs when a new product or service comes to market, thus a positive gathering of resources for it's production, yielding more prosperity, growth, and a standard of living. An expansion begins.
The innovation is then met with imitators who copy the innovating good or service. This is deemed good. More resources are delivered to these innovations. This may form a sector of the economy or compliment an existing sector. Labor is attracted to an existing economy.
As competition increases with imitation the market becomes saturated. The demand cannot bear the full weight of the productive forces. Quality is cut as well as other assumptions leading to lessening of costs. An unique facet is that competition and imitation can produce high quality that is worthy but competition and it's price may be to high and the product esoteric. Electronics are a good example.
As the saturation of markets increases competitors fail, debt increases in a chain reaction. Inflation grows. The currency is weakened either from the private or government side. Workers are displaced and idle. Hyperinflation occurs (possible).
The government and private sector are unable to maintain sound economic practices. Unsound banking practices by both the government and private sectors have destabilized the economy. Inflation, hyperinflation, then eventual devaluation of the currency. Borrowers cannot repay debt, neither principle or interest. Runs on banks occur by customers, (primary lenders) to save their accounts. The government is or has printed too much currency. The unit devalues. The forces of the market react in a chain of business and banking failures and great unemployed.
It is interesting to note in Malthusian variations the innovation may be negative. Sometimes an event that is manmade or natural may be the innovation. A war, disaster, hurricane, disease may have an innovative effect on the economy.
The assumptions of economy are often exercised at the international, domestic, and the particular sector that is wished to be entered.
One who chooses to engage in free trade is a monopolistic competitor. This individual is permitted to gather resources and services to manufacture and produce product as long as no illegal activities are not engaged in facilitating a complete monopoly. One may consult the Sherman Antitrust laws.
Monopolistic competition argues product differentiation which involves a systematic of ordering economic assumptions to the gathering of the production of resources, the processes, manufacture of products, services, and the distribution of these goods, in an individual way in which one is allowed to take ownership and limited ownership by law of the mode of production.
Product differentiation involves the distinct legal definition of inventions, processes of assembly, and naming of products, Distribution methods also may be privately owned.
Monopolistic competition allows individual corporate identity, individual corporate products, individual advertisements, schema, trademarks, logos, as well as an array of service for the domestic and international market.
One can analyze a company for it's skill in the components of economics. Monopolistic competition specializes in areas of quality, production, marketing, and services in product differentiation. A contemporary issue is the legal protection of these components as demonstrated by these theoretical concepts. Monopolistic competition involves an entrance into the market. Markets are discussed in different stages of historical development. In free trade analysis of the classical schools, economy exists in monopolistic competition in pure and perfect markets and short and long term equilibrium models. These models can be used in various manners to satisfy various thinking from a concept of the market to the overall development of the economy.
In short term equilibrium demand is pure. Pure demand states that the demand curve for any assumption is unlimited. The demand curve will sustain a product and as much production as the competitor desires to produce and as well as many varieties of products and as many businesses desired. Perfect competition states that every monopolistic competitor shall have the same access to the aggregates of production as well as the distribution to the customer in the demand curve.
The competitor will have access at the same price. An example is access to the paper, the ink, printing, and labor to print a book. All interested competitors are free to choose without fetters equally in the market for the possible resources, services, for the completion of the product. Likewise the distribution system is similarly equal in all fairness to customers in a pure format.
Monopolistic competition in pure and perfect markets is the primary goal of emergent capitalistic systems. Deductions from moral assumptions toward the development of the monopolistic competition of the monopolistic competitors and market are completed in this spirit and with rules in free trade. It is to be noted that the assumption is that capital will choose the best rate of exchange in the development of both competition and market is integral to the creation of the market economy. This functional proposition is a reduction of GATT and NAFTA regimes.
As an analogy of monopolistic competition and it's implication other market phenomena can be argued from a model of gold points. For our purposes we shall posit a community of ten competitors trading for gold. The gold is calculated in units, increments of one kilo. There are 100 hundred kilos. There are 100 gold points.
All competitors are free to trade in monopolistic competition. As trading begins all ten competitors have a share of the stock of gold, each possessing x amount individually of the 100 hundred kilos. The trading begins. We shall say that five competitors are lesser in skill. They have become insolvent. Their existing shares points have come to be held by the five remaining competitors. Trading shall continue. In short one competitor comes to hold all 100 hundred kilos, all 100 hundred gold points. This has been achieved from the start of the endeavor by wisely calculating the difference of exchange rates in buying and selling gold. This competitor has achieved a pure monopoly.
A simple model known as the circular flow model demonstrates the movement of currency. Individual persons are primary lenders. Banking institutions offer interest bearing accounts and services to attract the currency. The banking institutions then accumulate funds thus lending money to primary borrowers who are businesses. These large businesses convert loans into finished goods and services. Individuals work for these as well as being the final consumers of their goods and services.
This simple model demonstrates a primary source of borrowing and lending. This is analogous to other more complex movements of currency and capital.
The laizze faire spirit of entrepreneurship is one that wishes to expand all possibilities of participation in the economy. In the world market one wishes to establish new marketing opportunities and penetrate into existing markets without cease.
A competitor will usually devise a production table for one’s product. A small overview may be given here.
A chart is composed listing the components of production leading to the assembly of a product. It shall regard the cost of a product. The cost of 10 components shall be incurred time and labor shall be computed. The traditional item considered is a lamp.
The difference in cost between one finished product and the next unit is for marginal cost. Cost is more efficient generally as production increases. This represented as a negative slope from the y axis to the x axis.
Marginal revenue is the profit generated from each increasing unit of production. This represented by a positive slope. The intersection of the level of the curves is the efficient level of production. Marginal revenue shall equal marginal cost.
Total costs are calculated from the last item held in stock of the ink of the label. This analysis is integral to non proportional outputs. It is used similarly to measure economics at greater macroeconomic levels. Thus taking into consideration all natural resources, lands, minerals, wild animals, and sources of food (war economy and utility).
Non proportional outputs argues that components of production in a pure efficient manner from the first producer to the final consumer. Similar thinking may be used to complete the best schema for warehousing, rotation of inventory, overproduction usually is the norm, bringing to market, distribution, store design, shelf location, and pricing to increase to sales.
A competitor now choosing to exercise an economic assumption may need to finance his proposition. The competition for human and natural resources creates a demand curve. For all aggregates of economy.
As previously mentioned, the equilibrium is the interest rate. There is a tendency for the equilibrium to rise or fall sue to a shift or movement from one or both curves. The tendency to return to the original position is known as the elasticity of interest rates. When the demand curve becomes vertical and moves completely to the right full demand is achieved. When supply curves become horizontal and moves towards the x axis, there is 0 supply. The opposite movements are easily deductible.
Similarly, the demand for capital in the form of lending is an interest rate. The federal reserve system through open market operations services the printing of money by selling debt, hence borrowing money from the public or other agencies of government by the sale of bonds.
Bonds are the instruments that facilitate an investment of capital. Instruments can be securities, stock mortgages, long term cash accounts, policies and other financial notes.
The federal reserve is is the first mover of interest rates predicating the supply and demand curves for capital. Bond prices set the first rate of interest. Coupon bonds with flexible rates have been replaced by zero bonds that now rise to maturity at a fixed rate and then float at maturity. Savings bonds are an example. Bonds are negative valued as having a purchase rate of $ 95.50 with 4.5% being the remainder.
Primary and secondary markets are developed for investments. Banks brokerage houses, and insurance writers are primary customers of bond purchases which are the safest instrument security to anchor operations.
The maturation of bonds increases annually by compounding the interest rates daily and then based on the equilibrium held in balance for a minimum of a quarter year.
Bonds may be resold by the purchaser before the maturation of the of the note.
The secondary markets are the resale market. There is a secondary bond market for the exchange of bonds and coupons. The original purchaser may wish to capitalize on his position by selling off to a secondary party in this market.
Banks base their interest on the federal funds rate. This is the overnight rate that banks charge each other. In 1996 the 30 year bond rate was near 7%. The passbook rate was near 3.00% to 3.75% for accounts of $1000 or less.
Banks lend money to the government through purchases of bonds. Banks anchor their operations with instruments similar to bonds and re lend at higher rates to their customers. High rates make lending untenable resulting in a bell curve thus moving lower to a level where they cannot fall any farther.
The amount of resources is strongly limited. There is interdependence between all rates of exchange domestically and internationally. There are various market sectors as technology, mining, medicine, and similar other industries that form economies in the world market or economy.
The crowding out of interest rates occurs when one specific rate comes to dominate closely related exchange rates. If this is inflationary it is facilitating a depression.
The unemployment rate is similarly an initial factor in economic assumptions having an equilibrium rate born in market forces.
Political economy allows for the holding of property. Bonds are only debt. In a liquidation bonds are to repaid first. They are backed by the level of government or firm that issues the bond. Stocks are certificates of ownership that bear dividends in performance.
Currencies such as dollars, yens, and marks, are traded. This includes international lending as euro dollars which are overnight lending. Commodities are sold at contract sales.
In future trading oil ($18.00 per barrel June 2001 and $73.30 August 22, 2006) is sold contracted for delivery date. We will use January 1st. The purchaser is the long in the contract. The short is the purchaser of the contract future. This individual agrees to purchase the barrel of oil at the January 1st price.
The two parties have legally bound themselves to the sale. The purchaser is usually brokered by an agent (brokerage), that will usually cover the position in trading of moderate sales if there is a failure in meeting the obligation. Failure to do so may result in legal penalties and suspension from trading. The long or short may sell off their position in the secondary market before the contract date. This may occur several times. The long hopes for the price to rise (+18.00). The short hopes for the price to fall (-18.00) to resell at greater profit.
Short selling is also known as leveraged buying. The brokerage firm will usually offer a credit line for individuals to purchase futures with cash through loans (short), offering incentives to increase volume hence fees. They, as already stated are usually willing to cover most positions themselves to hold or sell in their portfolios to attract more investment.
It is to be noted that these firms may offer this service with the selling of shares. If a third party cannot be contracted, firms usually write a check keeping the stock in portfolios or selling off.
The New York Stock Exchange NYSE is the main American market where companies, the largest firms are listed with price, earnings, and other information. The Dow Jones Thirty is the weighted price in dollars of the performers of the market. The American Stock Exchange ASE, Standard and Poor's 500 S&P 500, Wilshire Line are also smaller stock markets. The futures market is located in Chicago.
Trading is completed worldwide in similar stock markets and exchanges in various business centers. Recent trends include mutual funds, pooling of money of which one owns a share of a total investment in a basket of stocks. Chief executive officers or CEOs are being more often required to take salary in strict relationship to performance. These persons are offered futures at a certain price allowing for them to exercise their option to purchase the stock or future as it matures under guidelines on the contract date. The result is enormous compensation. Payment to CEOs has reached 100 million dollars in the exercise of futures options.
A macro concept of investment and political economy is the multiplier effect. This variable is the rate of consumption; currently near 18% per person, or 18% per dollar on average for the population.
In the taxing and redistribution of income the government taxes the public taking money out of the economy shrinking the money supply usually under some circumstance (budget needs). This will increase the demand fro money strengthening currency. Money held in the federal reserve does not earn interest.
According to moral assumption, public policy is devised, a budget made to redistribute the taxes or money, the government paying itself and directing the funds to various programs and outlays. This is subsidization.
We shall use for simplification’s purpose $100 dollars to explain the multiplier effect. The government will introduce $100 dollars into a small program. A small table reads likewise:
In total 23 transactions subtracting 18.00% successively would leave $.85 cents for this economy. Theoretically this could go on to infinity. The payment for the service could be welfare, medication, or an arms supplier. The circulation of the monies may move through various sectors by purchases by the beneficiaries. Purchases may include hospital care, medicine, supplies, food, metal, electronics, and labor until the whole 100% of the amount is spent.
The case being thus, the government is arguing to fulfill the constitution by legislation and funding the activity of the political economy by taxes and redistributing funds. By targeting sectors the government stimulates sectors for growth.
Each person and contractor is taxed the minimum around 30 to 35 percent. The taxes from each party and the movement of monies should return the $100 dollars to the government in the final period of taxation. This multiplier at 30% tax yields $105.24. This is a $5.24 net return to the tax reserves.
This is known as the multiplier factor. Conversely one could argue that the best multiplier is achieved by leaving funds in the private sector. This assumption has been recently paired with the flat tax model.
Variations could be extended over a small fiscal period. The case being that the taxation should return the monies used less a moral necessity or disaster, epidemic, or a military engagement.
Supply side laissez faire thinking argues that the government is an unnecessary inefficient consumer of wealth; rewarding itself handsomely and thus producing less than capital would by eliminating taxes and keeping capital unfettered.
Theorists of this nature argue the greater multiplier, hence economy, expansion is created under the assumptions of the private sector thus creating greater prosperity, employment, and economic efficiency.
Much concern is now at hand worldwide over the role of government; how policy movements should be implemented through taxation and bonds. Socialists and communists radicals would like to see government do more than classical thinkers arguing that the government is less exploitive and fairer.
In a balance sheet there is a simple argument found that is also akin to budget projections of every sort. This is planned investment equals planned savings.
We will use $1,000,000 for a hypothetical bank and it's balance sheet.
The balance sheet is divided down the center, planned investment to the left and planned savings to the right. Both sides of the statements must balance, be equal.
Federal banking regulations currently state that 25% of assets must be held in the federal reserve and 25% in securities to guarantee solvency.
From the initial charter of backers and primary lenders, deposits on April 1, 2006 are $1,000,000. This sum is entered in planned savings and then planned investments. On April 2, $250,000 is transferred planned savings to the federal reserve. A loan is made in PI from PS. Two investments are recorded in PI and then PS. Banks prefer short term bonds to take advantage of interest rates. The bank must maintain 50% percent of all assets in the federal reserves and securities that are not used in loans and other banking operations (regulations).
Activity is ceased for April 2, itemized and the total carried over to April 3.
The bank has $1,000,000 of which 500,000 may be used in lending. On April 3, $500,000 in loans have been secured. The bank has invested in PI $500,000 and now has $500,000 in PS. At the close of the April 3, there I in PI $1,500,000 and in PS $1,500,000.
The bank now has $1,500,000 in paper money or book money of which the bank managers and loan officers are responsible for.
A most important consideration are the analysis of balance sheets in macro political economics is the position of capital investment in the PI column. As PS is converted into a capital investment of purchases of generators, tractors something tangible facilitating the real structural productions of outputs namely capital goods, GDP or Gross Dependent Production, then the economy will expand.
The critical position of capital and capital goods and resources are shrewdly targeted to create economy. When the capital position of currency is favorable due to the addition and subtraction of these aggregates, the market expands or on the contrary enters a depression. The movements of M 1 are good for purchasing power. M 2 and M 3 may be correct for investment and savings anchoring the currency.
Persons are sometimes requested to break savings to supply money to the market to avoid the government intervening by selling bonds which will introduce new printed money for the interest payments. This is usually inflationary and the currency will devalue as the supply of money expands.
This type of economy is sensitive to capital and the financing of investments in addition to the needs of the capital position. These are the capital investments to satisfy the needs of a demand curve (fulfilling supply). This is the crux of market economics.
An entrepreneur analyzes all aggregates, non proportional outputs of economy domestically and worldwide. A rate of exchange has been enfranchised to one in political economy. One analyses the differences in the rate of exchange, interest rates (rents) that exist between goods and services. A calculation is made regarding the multiplier effect, hence the marginal revenue and marginal cost of all the aggregates of the economic assumption of the investment considered. The entrepreneur chooses the best production, investment in a firm or product existing or potentially, to fully make the most efficient use of natural resources and capital to complete economic activity.
All assumptions are first carefully deduced and calculated from the most complete morality or system of moral assumptions towards the completion of the economic enterprise.
The federal reserve is also predicated on a similar schema. The first bank, the national bank, the federal reserve requires a minimum of 25% of currency in reserve to print new money.
The new currency is printed by the treasury to facilitate the interest payment on bonds. Extra bond sales can be seen as a deviant manner of printing bad money or devaluating the currency.
The management of currency through open market operations should permit currency to recirculate through the economy encouraging the necessary growth of banking and private individuals.
Primary bankers and other institutions shall have to deposit money in the federal reserve system to maintain solvency strengthening their position as well or be attracted to bond sales in a genuine manner in evidence of a healthy government.
Long term general equilibrium is an analytical tool of a fully developed economy. It is used to gauge needs of whole and individuals in policy creation. There are those that argue this analysis as left of center. Market analysis is more concerned with the multiplier effect. There is a relationship but the two concepts have more distinct uses.
Long term general equilibrium is derived after short term equilibrium.
When the least advanced individual in the economic strata is satisfied and does not wish to enter and exercise one’s economic assumptions, is genuinely happy as well as all upper and inclusively of the most advanced public and private members of the economic community, this economy has achieved equilibrium.
A simple person, e.g. an unemployed person, decides to work; to gather fruit for sale to increase one's economic standards. The individual is desiring to be upwardly mobile. There is a demand exerted in the market. One enters into the workplace seeking employment, the collected fruit is sold in the market. One is now a competitor. The market is not in equilibrium. The market adjust to the competitor's presence.
The small businesspersons also are endeavoring to increase their activity. Competition creates saturation. Weak businesses fail. Imitation has occurred.
Eventually there are many businesses that are hierachialized with very advanced specialized work differentiation and management. There are many fully developed sectors and a great variation of goods and services which are reflective of long term equilibrium. The workers of the failed businesses are displaced.
These persons and the entrepreneurs are monopolistic competitors. These shall argue economic assumptions until they are reabsorbed into the economy or are satisfied.
This activity is inclusive of the upper strata of government and CEOs until are all 100 % satisfied in the exercise of their economic assumptions. This is long term equilibrium.
If this is not the case the market will readjust. Similarly it must be noted that all members must be free to vocalize and move their will otherwise long term general equilibrium will not occur.
Theorists have debated this issue. Some argue that it could never occur. It is utopic; an analytical tool to measure the aggregates of economy, movement of sectors and individuals towards a fully developed economy. This model has a linkage in state planning and social theory. Generally speaking long term general equilibrium is an inductive model that is a target to shoot at.
In conclusion of monopolistic competition in pure and perfect markets argues that the description of a more efficient economic engine for accumulating wealth in an economy, is that all economy bears some relationship to propriety and property and is therefore monopolistic. These positions are either one of state or private monopoly.
The adaptation of these principles are suitable by spiritual, moral, and ideological reasons for first assumptions which must be again tested to prove validity.
A brief note shall conclude with a small picture of political economy. This is the classicist position.
Classicist argue the free trade position that market economics create greater wealth, stability, and allows for greater freedom to participate. Hard work will pay off in the long run. Classicists would like to see this position universally applied permitting for the same entrance to every market (perfect market) worldwide with legal rights of private property and investment (intellectual property). This position is anti nationalization. Economy is more efficient if property is kept in private hands. Bankers, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank share in the classicist position. These actors are concerned with the printing of money, balance of payments, the paying off of debt and interest, and a positive sum line.
These arguments are dominated by United States and Japanese baking institutions with European interests. These institutions control the capitalization available to nationalities.
The United States may be seen as integral to the IMF and World Bank. These agencies lend in combination from different countries agencies through the United Nations with other credits as grain. The United States is a highly advanced economic interest exerting a great amount of pressure for the protection of patents and technology transfers. This reflects a position of the North Alignment.
Radicals are advocates of the South Alignment. This position argues that the classicists and bankers form a club or conspiracy against emergent economies. The South demonstrates a distrust in the North's interest in exploitation of natural resources from these nation states resulting in capital flight.
Radicals at times argue the protection of sectors or industry from competition. Nationalization is acceptable to pool resources and limit competition. This is known as economic nationalization.
Multinational corporations that have a headquarters in a foreign homeland tend to redistribute profits to these nations. Transnationals where ownership is more diversified through stock ownership in many nations is more desired than the concentration of capital in New York, Tokyo, or Frankfurt.
Autarky is a possibility. This in a simple form is functioning strictly from a domestic production and withdrawal from international trading. It is similar to a war economy. At the minimum it is the maintenance of the species life. Blockades appear to be futile as a country would be able to isolate itself and outlive the sanctions. Ideology and moral positions are also antecedent to voluntarily isolating a nation an economic assumption for autarky.
South countries would like to see technology transfers. Radical economies had it's champion in Marx but has move towards market socialism or socialization of the market. The two are somewhat different with the former more market oriented, the latter the ends is not necessarily accepting the market as a primary structure for social justice.
Both positions argue a welfare state balanced by private and nationalized industry.