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Chemistry


Chemistry is the physical science that deals with study of matter. This study is reducible to physics and is researched at the subatomic level leading to the formation of molecular structures and elements.


An element is a substance that cannot be decomposed by chemical means without losing it's characteristics. Oxygen and iron are common elements and iron. There are 90 plus naturally occurring common elements with 15 plus manmade elements. The later pertain to nuclear physics.


An atom is the smallest particle of an element that can enter into combinations with other elements. Atoms consist of charged and neutral particles above the subatomic level. The charge particle is called the proton. The negatively charged particle is the electron. The neutral particle is the neutron.


The mass of the atom is accounted for in the proton and neutron. The mass of these two particles for simple scientific purposes is considered equal. At this level the electron has mass but is not usually accounted for in basic operations. The mass of a proton and neutron is one. The electron ratio to this numeral is accounted for fractionally in a decimal if it is necessary to do so.


The proton singularly can form a nucleus electron in orbit. These materials have a mass of one. The neutron is the neutrally charge particle that may adhere to the proton to form a nucleus.


Electrons are held in shells in pairs around the nucleus. The shells contains 1, 2, 2, 4, 8, and 18 electrons. No outer shell can contain more than 8 electrons if the subsequent shell is empty.


The atomic weight of an atom is a Dalton which is arbitrarily deduced in which the mass of carbon to permit the hydrogen to have a weight of one.


An isotope of an element differs in the mass due to variation of neutrons in it's nucleus.


The elements have been arranged scientifically in the periodic table of elements with this format:


1 2 Radium
2 18 88 Ra
3 18 226 Atomic Weight
4 32
5 8
6 8
6 2

A compound is a substance that can be decomposed into two or more elements. These two elements may be decomposed into atoms. Properties of the two elements are different than those of the compound. A molecule is the smallest particle of a covalently bounded element that retains properties of that substance. Atoms become linked together in what is known as a bond. Bonding occurs when electromagnetivity is less and atoms do not transfer electrons in their shells but share them.


Ionic bonding is a chemical bond formed by the giving up, sharing of electrons from an ion. An ion is an atom that electrical charges arise from the gain or loss of electrons. The valence number refers to these characteristics in the gain, loss, or shared electrons in bonding.


Isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula but with a different structural formula. Glucose and fructose isotopes differ in weight due to the difference of neutrons in their nucleus.


In bonding in similar atoms, the same atom may combine such as H2, Hydrogen. They are now molecules. When the weight in grams is equal to the weight of the substance, the unit is one mole he molecular weight is the sum total of all the different atoms in a molecule.


In molecules two or more atoms combine in a precise arrangement.


In ionic compounds electromagnetivity determines that certain sharing or valence of electrons occur. NaCl or salt is an ionic compound that is created from ionic bonding. The atoms are charged and known as ions. The bonding in this substance creates a three dimensional configuration. Hence this is not decomposed of molecules and herein is the definition of the ionic compound.


A mixture is material containing two or more substances. No chemical bonding occurs. They retain their individual properties.


In a solution, individual ions or molecules become suspended in a liquid the solute. This medium is known as a solvent.


Colloids are suspensions of particles that are larger than those in true solutions but too small to settle out in gravity.


A suspension is similar to a mixture of sand and water. The sand falls to the bottom under the force of gravity after time with the difference of atomic materials under chemical reactions.


An acid is a compound that will free a proton in water.


A catalyst speeds up the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs. A catalyst is a chemical effect that does so without becoming permanently altered in the process. Heat is a common catalyst. In living organism, enzymes carry out this function.


Formulas are used to describe atoms, molecules, and compounds in a two dimensional format. A simple dot method is used to show shared electrons between two electrons. This format is too cumbersome for large molecules.


Molecular formulas show the number of times over one the individuals atoms appear in a molecular.


C 1864 H 3012 O 576 N 468 S 21


Structural formulas show the arrangement of bonding between atoms in a molecule.


H H


Formula weight is the minimum ratio of ions in a compound.


Na = 23 Cl = 35.5 Formula weight = 58.5


Chemical equations are formulas to express chemicals changes that occur within an operation. All the substances that are used in the chemical change are reactants. An arrow is drawn to indicate the products.


C2 H5 + 02 CH3 COOH + H20


The reactive weighs of the reactants and products are revealed if the molecular weight is adduced correctly the same equation will suffice for greater amounts of molecules in the same ratio.


The rate of the chemical reaction is important in chemistry. Two important complements are temperature and concentration. Generally speaking the speed of chemical reactions double for every increase of 10O C. Concentrations of molecules that exist far apart from one another limit the change of molecules that exist far apart from one another limit the necessary for the success of the reaction.


This is the most important factor in the nature of the reacting material.


Collision can be inherent in energy releasing oxidation and the moving from electropositive to electronegative atoms.


A type of chemical change is an exchange reaction. This involves the exchange of a proton H from one molecule to another molecule to another molecule a base is a substance that has arrangement that may accept a proton from an acid.


HCL dissolves in water producing hydrochloric acid.


HCL – H20 H30 +CL


An equal ratio to a basic solution will achieve neutralization.


Oxidation reduction reactions differ in that an exchange of electrons is always involved. A substance that receives the transfer of electrons is reduced. Oxygen is a good reducing agent. Electropositive elements are good reducing agents.


Biological oxidation occurs by the removal of hydrogen atoms. Redux reactions incur the release of copious amounts of energy and the formation of strong bonds. Weak bonds store potential energy. The trapping and storing of energy is integral to life.


Reactions in which the products can back react to reform the reaction are called reversible reactions.


In a closed system, the forward and reverse reactions eventually reach equilibrium.


The above information is not intended to be complete but to give insight into biology and bio mechanics. Studying the nuclear level can complete further chemistry study.


Biology


Biology is the science of life. It is a demonstrable science in its modern format that argues the origins of life arising from inorganic chemicals into cells, tissues, organs, and systems, as well as interface the beings into ecosystems.


As a demonstrable science, theories of life arising from non mechanistic movers are not currently presented in most biology texts.


Living chemistry is organic chemistry. This is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Life is basically composed of water, protein, fats other lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and minerals. Water and minerals are inorganic.


Carbohydrates are molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, CH20. The most important is a sugar, glucose. Other sugars are sucrose, table sugar, and fructose. Starches are polymers, chain like molecules. They are called polysaccharides. Hydrolysis is the digestion of starches by enzymes such as amylase and maltase. In humans extra starch is stored as glycogen in muscle tissue and the liver. Fat is the main storage for energy other than glycogen in man.


Fats are digested by lipase. Fats are saturated and unsaturated Fats are insoluble in water and need to be converted. Phospholids, colloids, and emulsions are the result of their conversion making the fat available for transport. Substituting a phosphorous containing molecule for a fatty acid converts a fat into a phospholid.


Proteins are polymers that are chains of amino acids. Life as we know it is composed of proteins. They are the chief molecules of cells. Glycine, isoluceine, and valine are some amino acids. They are composed in a sequence. There are over twenty amino acids.


Nucleic acids are large molecules. DNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid o is found in the nucleus of cells. RNA or Ribonucleic acid is found in the cytoplasm.


DNA and RNA are being studied in their elliptical stairwell model as the molecule that controls the information, structure, activities, and the control of the machinery that directs the operations of life. DNA is the master blueprint in a code. Purine Pyranidine pairs form the construction of an organism.


Vitamins are organic molecules that an organism cannot manufacture. Green plants manufacture all their needs. All vitamins are 1. organic 2. are not used as an energy source for the construction of a cell. 3. The organism cannot synthesize the vitamins from its standard food group.


Some important vitamins are:


A - Sight


B1 Thiamine Coenzyme - Respiration


R2 Riboflavin Niacin - Precursor to Redux operation


Folic acid - Synthesize coenzyme


B 12 - Yields Atom of cobalt


C Ascorbic Acid - Antioxidant good for muscles


D - Antioxidant - Bones


E - Antioxidant – Skin


K


Minerals help in the maintenance of water in systems as well as give rigidity and structure to the organism in bones and shells.


Water accounts for over 60% of the mass in living beings. Water remains liquid at various temperatures and is an excellent solvent. Evaporation of water from the skin absorbs heat thus cooling the organism.


Cell theory states that cells are formed primarily of a nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane or wall existing as the fundamental unit of life.


The nucleus contains the genetics materials in chromosomes. The nucleus is the control center of cells. During mitosis or cell division equal members of chromosomes are divided into two daughter cells.


Cell membrane or walls are the outer region and boundary of cells. This boundary controls what materials may pass through towards the interior. Different membranes have different functions in different cells.


The cytoplasm is a water like medium that contains the other structures of the cell. Other structures of the cell are. Other structures are: 1 ribosomes 2. endoplasmic reticulum 3. golgi apparatus 4. mitochondria 5. plastids 6. vacuoles 7. lysomes 8. peroxisomes 9. crystals and droplets 10. microtubules 11. centrioles 12. cilia and flagella.


The higher organization for the organism is:


Societies


Organism


Systems


Tissues


Cells


Organelles


Small molecules


Atoms


Atomic particles


Simple genetics provide for a theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics. This states that traits of parents that were acquired may be passed onto the offspring. Two gametes constitute the genetic bridge between one generation and the next.


A gamete is the haploid reproduction cell after fusion with another gamete initiates the development of a new individual. Meiosis is two successive cell divisions; each containing one half the number of chromosomes in the original cell.


In his theory, Weisman argues that a newborn girl begins at setting aside the gamete cells pertaining to meiotic division for the mature at birth. This is called the continuity of germplasm. The multicellular organism are made of gamete producing cells, the germplasm and the rest of the body are the germplasm. This activity is the eternal and immortal going backwards to the genetics of first life.


Gregor Mendel's (1823 1844) work with garden peas is important to genetics. Mendel crossbred a round wrinkle seeded variety. This parental generation is P1. Mendel mixed pollen reciprocally across his set of parents. Mendel recorded shape, stem, and leaf size of the plants and of the seeds.


The next generation is known as F1. This is the hybrid generation because it is produced of dissimilar parents.


Mendel planted all the seeds. 235 plants matured. These plants were permitted to fertilize naturally. 7324 seeds were recovered for the F2 generation. There were 5474 round to 1850 wrinkled seeds yielding a 2.96: 1 ration.


Of these seeds (F2), Mendel planted and harvested by self fertilization anew crop F3.


Mendel recovered wrinkled seeds from the stock of wrinkled seeds. The round seeds yielded 565 plants by self fertilization. 193 round seeded plants were harvested. 372 plants yielded mixed seed as round and wrinkled in a 3:1 ratio.


Traits received in the F1 generation Mendel named dominant. Traits that did not appear until the F2 generation were named recessive.


Mender's hypothesis contains five propositions of which two are noted here:


4. When the reproductive cells are prepared the actors separate and are distributed to each other. This is the law of segregation The 1st law of Mendel’s Law.


5. If an organism has 2 unlike factors for a given characteristics, one may be expressed to the exclusion of the other. An allele describes alternating gene controlling another gene.


The pure breeding round seeds are RR. The pure breeding wrinkled seeds are rr. These pairs form the parent P1 generation. They are homozygous having identical alleles at the corresponding gene locus on homologous chromosomes. Before this crossing the genes are alike in each plant. All the gametes are the same. The sperm or nucleus from the genes are alike in each plant. All the gametes are the same. The sperm or allele from the round seed will carry allele R. The gamete from the small seed carries allele r. The zygote, the cell formed from two gametes in the crossbred can only be Rr. The F1 generation carries one each of 2 alleles. The F1 plants are heterozygous having 2 separate gene alleles.


R
R
r Rr Rr
r Rr Rr

All zygotes will have genotype Rr


r gametes of r R gamete of


1n Parent r R 2n Parent R


F1 parents form gamete alleles. Only half the number of gametes will contain R, the other r. Uniting at random, this gamete will produce zygotes that are ½ heterozygous, ¼ homozygous R and ¼ homozygous r. The resultant available combinations are RR Rr rr in the ratio 1:2:1. The dominance of r over r leaves the seeds round coated to the eye. These seeds in question have the same phenotype; the visible appearance from a genotype and its environment.


In the F3 generation all rr seeds breed rr. In Mendel’s experiment 193 round seeds bred true for R 2/3 (372) of the round and wrinkled seeds produce round and wrinkled seeds in a 3:1 ratio. This event necessitates they were heterozygous.


I four f4 generations the 1:2:1 ratio would not be readily expected as a result, but as numbers increased this ratio returns towards predictability.


R
r
R RR Rr
r Rr Rr

Two phenotypes round wrinkled produce 3:1


Three genotypes in F2


RR Rr rr


1 2 1


F1 R will only produce round peas r


R ½ gamete - r ½ gamete


F1 Rr will only produce both round and wrinkled F3 3:1


rr will only produce only wrinkled peas 1:3


Mendel's 2nd law of independent assortment is the distribution of one pair of factors independent of the other pair. An F1 dihybrid or crossing two parents of a different trait are crossed. The F2 generation resembles the P1 generation for phenotype Ry - Ry –Yr- ry. The ratios are 9:3:3:1 as could be revealed from the Purnets square.


Mendel's work is important to the foundation of genetics. The multiple factor hypothesis of Nilson Ehle mated two F1 plants that produced an F2 generation of red bright plants outnumbering white 15:1. The intensity however was lesser. This explained as a result of incomplete dominance.


Thus three predications are stated in the multiple factor hypothesis.


1. When extremes AA BB aa bb mate offspring are intermediate.


2. When two intermediate are mated the same occurs with some extremes.


3. The results of random matings in a larger population will be greatest in the middle in type, with variable fewer at either extreme. This is a quantitative variation in living things.


Genes contain chromosomes. They are elongated structures containing genie material in a nucleus.


Nucleic acids are macromolecules constructed of 20+ amino acids. The nucleic acid within the nucleus is DNA. The nucleic acid identified outside and within the cell structure is RNA.


DNA in the nucleic acid is chromosomes. It and other nucleic acids have three units, bases, sugars, and phosphates groups. It's bases are or four types: 2 purines (adenine and guarine) 2 pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine). They may referred to as A G T C. The sugar is deoxiribose hence the deoxyribonucleic acid in RNA ribose unit. Ribose has one more oxygen in its molecule, a pyromidine U for thymine in RNA.


Watson Crick proposed a model for DNA. Phosphate and sugar alternate in a long strand. Two strands twist around one another in a double helix. A base is attached to each so it is directed to it's axis. There it joins the other spiral strand at its base. He shape and nature of the purine and pyrimidine base yields only these pairs, AT GC. The amounts shall be equal in the molecule. 100, 000 to 106 base pairs are possible.


At one step on the staircase any four base pairs may be present. Any base pairs present is complimented on the other strand as well as determines the gap between strands. The strands in this sequence are positive and negative.


During interphase, the time between cell divisions, the DNA unzip. The bases break and molecules unwind. The base now seeks the appropriate nucleopeptides – bases with deoxiribose and phosphate. C picks up G, G picks C. This is exact in the mitosis of cell division.


Genes may pass their coded material for thousands of generations. Enzymes can remove or correct damage from the DNA.


Mutations to the DNA occur and are known as point mutations. In the body cells of an organism of the species are least affected. In the gamete the change is significant. First this is the source of evolution. Secondarily it is the source of information in the study of disease.


Protein synthesis occurs in the ribosomes. These are constructed from ribosomal RNA. The DNA guide the synthesis of messenger RNA and ribosomal RNA.


The DNA is the model assembling ribonucleopetides into RNA whose basic sequences compliment those of the DNA. They are linked by an enzyme RNA polymerase.


The RNA can transmit hereditary messages to the protein making machinery located in the cytoplasm.


The transfer RNA are 3 types of RNA. There exists 40 to 60 for each amino acid. These act with ATP and an enzyme attached to a transfer RNA.


The transfer RNA and messenger RNA require the mechanism of ribosomes. The ribosomes interpret the bases of the RNA. The RNA and each amino acid are then linked in polypeptide, a chain of fewer than 100 amino acids. Its sequence of bases are now transcribed into a messenger RNA. Several ribosomes usually perform this function. This is known as a polysome.


The genetic code devises itself from 4 bases A U C G. These will yield 16 different pair combinations. Triplets AAA UUU would yield 14 combinations. Two or three triplets are likely to be found in the coding of an amino acid. This triplet configuration also yields the presence of 20 transfer RNA bringing the same amino acid in the growing peptide chain. A codon is a triplet base.


UAA, UAG, UGA have not been found to code an amino acid. AUG occurs within the genetic message. It guides the incorporation of Methionine. All messages begin with AUG.


The two AUG transfer RNA molecules are not known as to how they distinguish between AUG in the beginning of the code.


An alteration in a base of DNA will result in Messenger RNA. Similarly a corresponding codon would be necessarily in the resultant RNA transfer molecule. The third bas e can usually be altered without a change in amino acid. The changes would then result in a mutation.


A different amino acid assigned to it's base pair yields then the mutation in only a few years. A gene controlling hemoglobin may result in 100 mutations. The genetic code of 16 groups of triplet bases is argued as universal from single celled organisms plants to mammals.


Communication is facilitated in most animals. This internal function is carried out by two systems, the nervous and endocrine system. The nervous system is comprised of neurons which transmit electronic signals to one point in the body to another. The endocrine system facilitates many factors and transports chemicals and hormones to other locations.


Clusters of cells known as endocrine glands achieve chemical coordination in animal systems. The hormones exit directly from these glands into the blood stream.


In human endocrinology the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands are of extreme importance. The thyroid gland is located in the upper gland and excretes the amino acid thyroxin. Thyroxin controls the rate of metabolism.


Excessive production of the hormone causes hypothyroidism. This is the cause of cretinism in humans. There is also a failure to mature physically and mentally before maturity. In the adult stage obesity and hardening of features occurs a condition known as Myxcodema occurs. Iodine in the diet alleviates this disease.


TSH is a hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This hormone governs the thyroid gland and compensates larger amounts of iodine, which may enlarge the thyroid. TSH with no iodine may result in goiter.


Parathoid glands are four structures in the rear of the thyroids. There is a relationship between CA Calcium and these glands.


PTH or Parathyroid hormone supplies these functions: 1. Promotes the release of CA++ from bones. 2. Promotes the absorption of CA++ in the intestine from foods. 3. The relationship of CA++ in the kidneys. 4. Helps rid the body of Po4.


Hyperparathroidism occurs when one of the glands enlarges and becomes extra active. Bones become brittle and break under lighter stress. Vitamin D is an aid.


The pituitary gland is referred to as the master gland. The hormones of the gland often control the activities of the endocrine gland.


In most vertebrates the pituitary gland consist in three lobes. 1.anterior 2. intermediate 3. posterior. The intermediate lobe is found prematurely only in the human species.


In the anterior lobe, HGH, human growth hormone is secreted. It is usually active only in the childhood years. This polypeptide chain of amino acids stimulates the liver to produce an excretion to promote muscle, cartilage, bone, and connective tissue growth. HGH is secreted in anabolic functions throughout adult life. It necessitates the presence of thyroxin to function effectively.


Lactogenetic hormone LTH is similar. LTH produces milk after childbirth. Thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH, stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxin. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex to secretes its hormone to target organs.


Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in the females stimulates the secretion of estrogen and in males acts upon the gonads or sex organs. Lutenizing hormone, LH completes the first meiotic division and reaches metaphase becoming ready for fertilization. LH is found in males in the testes facilitating the release of androgens.


Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH) is responsible or the appearance of moles, freckles, and suntan.


The posterior lobe is not a true endocrine gland. It stores hormones in the hypothalamus of the brain. Two such hormones are oxycotin and vasopressin.


Oxycotin facilitates the contraction of smooth muscle tissue. This activity is especially prevalent in the uterus at childbirth.


Vasopressin is responsible for two functions in man. It is the cause of contraction of muscular walls in arterioles increasing blood pressure. The re absorption of water in kidneys is facilitated by vasopressin.


The structure and function of the pituitary glands serves as a link between the nervous system and endocrine systems. Located at the base of the brain, it has a direct nerve connection to the brain and to the hypothalamus. In the hypothalamus one secretion stimulates the anterior lobe to produce TSH. Pituitary secretion can often be seen as an influence to nervous stimulation.


The adrenal glands are located atop each kidney. The external portion is the adrenal cortex, the internal the adrenal medulla.


The adrenal medulla is an endocrine that is also part of the nervous system. Two hormones are secreted by the adrenal medulla, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Adrenaline is not known to have any function in metabolism. It is secreted under stress, during anger, fright, or injury. Responses vary including rates and strengths of heartbeat. Blood is moved toward skeletal tissues, coronary arteries, liver, and brain. Bronchia dilate allowing air to pass in and out of the lung. Clotting of blood in time is reduced. ACTH is stimulated in the pituitary.


Noradrenaline stimulates blood pressure by contracting the arterioles. The secretion of these two hormones is important to performance under duress.


The adrenal cortex secretes several hormones in classifications: The glucortisoids and mineralcortoids. Cortisol and corticosterone are important glucortisoids. Fat and proteins are converted by metabolism and then glucose accounting for blood sugar. After stress these hormones are needed for maintenance.


Of the mineralcoricoids, aldosterone is the mist important accounting for re absorption of NA+ and CL+ in the tubules of kidneys. There is evidence that aldosterone activates genes and the genetic code.


Homeostasis in the human endocrine systems is maintained chemically by hormones. Growth, sexual, development and metabolism are affected by chemical coordination. Hormones are transported in the bloodstream. Cells in a target organ respond to hormonal secretion. The steroid hormones enter the target cells to perform their work. Protein and polypeptide hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface.


The steroid hormones move to the nucleus and the hormone protein complex binds to DNA in certain cases to complete certain metabolism.


The latter categories bind to the adrenal cycles, which catalyze ATP in Cyclic AMP. AMP stimulates B cells of the Islets of Langhorne to release insulin, kidney secretion, rennin, and for liver cells to secrete glucose of which is muscle fuel. The thyroid cell is also stimulated to engage the secretion of hormones, which facilitate other mechanism. Earl Sutherland received the Nobel Prize for second messenger work of cyclical AMP.


There are three components of neuron coordination: 1. receptors 2. conductors 3. effectors.


Receptors detect change in the environments, initiate a signal, and send nerve impulses in nerve cells. Sense organs are stimulating receptors, the eye with light, the ear with sound, the nose with chemicals and so forth.


The conductors are the nerves themselves. They are bundles of fibers, extensions of cells called neurons. Two neurons exist. Sensory neurons transmit impulse from the receptor to the Central Nervous System or CNS, the brain, and spinal cord.


Motor neurons transmit impulses from the CNS to the body part that takes action. Association neurons are neurons that lie along the passage way to motor neurons.


Effectors carry out some action as response to impulses received from the motor neurons. In this activity glands and muscles are the most important effectors.


Most animals have receptors of radiant energy (photoreceptors), mechanical forces (mechanical receptors), and chemical (chemical receptors).


Nervous coordination is facilitated by a system of conductors, nerve cells which are named neurons.


Neurons are specialized cells capable of transporting electrochemical signals over a distance.


The impulse from the receptors is generated over fibers facilitating their functions. The dendrites conduct along a long fiber the axon. The axon is covered by the myelin sheath, which consists of a membrane of the schwan cell.


There are then groups of neuron. Sensory neurons confirm the stimulus and signal toward the CNS, the cluster of sensory neurons at the base of the spine and ganglion. Axons usually terminate at associate neurons.


Associate neurons are located exclusively in the spinal cord and brain. They are the intermediate pathway in nerve conductions.


Motor neurons transmit from the CNS from the CNS to glands and muscles facilitated by a slow but steady oxidation of ATD which oxidates glucose into ATP. This energy is used to transfer NA+ cellular fluid and K+ potassium from ECF to the interior. A 0.7 volt charge occurs due to the negatively charged cytoplasm of the cell and ECF. The voltage is the equilibrium level.


The electrochemical reaction at it's greatest rate is 200 mph. Some neurons are capable of a transmission rate of 500 to 1000 impulses a second.


Synapses are the point at intersection, which axonal terminals of one neuron come into contact with another neuron. Acetylcholine is present in the gap between neurons. This substance functions as a transporter. The synapse functions as a value permitting a value permitting a one way flow nerve impulses.


Chemical transmission also occurs in the CNS, ACH, four amino acids, glutamine acid, gamma aminobutrylic acid, glycine and ascorbic acid derivatives noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, and histamine) are present. Dopamine is an intermediate in the synthesis of noradrenaline. Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptohane


The reflex arc is the unit of function of the nervous system.


1. Stimulus detection by receptor.


2. Nerve impulses are sent from receptors along neurons to the spinal cord.


3. Associate neurons initiate impulses in appropriate motor neurons.


When impulses reach a junction between muscles, the muscles flexor contracts. Corollary inhibitor association neurons inhibit extensor muscles through the motor neuron to complete a coordination.


The Central Nervous System, CNS consists of the spinal cord and the brain.


The spinal cord runs from the base of the brain through the backbone. The outer portion is white; the inner gray within the cord is a canal that connects ventricles with cerebrospinal fluid.


White matter consists of myleniated nerve fibers running vertical along the cord, gray matter is closely packed cells of association and motor neurons.


There are 31 nerves roots at spaced intervals along the cord. They form the mixed nerves of the peripheral nervous system. These pass into a dorsal root then into the cord. Cell bodies are located in the dorsal root.


Separation of motor and sensory axons in the root is easily demonstrable. He cutting or damaging of dorsal roots causes a loss of sensation in the corresponding part of the body that is emitting nerve impulses.


The spinal cord carries out two primary functions. It is a connection of the peripheral nervous system to the brain. Impulses reaching the spinal cord through sensory neurons may move up the cord by association neurons. The information leaving the brain travels down by means of other association neurons, the leaving the cord through motor neurons.


The association neuron carries impulses from receptors to effectors organized in tracts.


Impulses from the left side of the brain reach the right side and vice-versa. This may incur as the impulse enters the cord itself.


The second function of the brain is basically to receive impulses from the spinal cord and cranial nerves leading to it from the various senses. The organization of these impulses is the key to brain function. Conscious sensation, memory, and responsive body action are coordinated by the circuitry within the brain.


Because of the crossing over of spinal cords, the left hemisphere controls the right. The brain is selfcontained in some functions such as the memory of a single event.


The brain is deigned into three basic areas: 1. hindbrain 2. mid brain 3. forebrain.


The function of the brain is basically to receive impulses from the spinal cord and cranial nerves heading towards it from the various senses. The organization of these impulses is the key to brain function - consciousness – sensation – memory. The association of one stimulus with another or memory and responsive body action are coordinated by the circuitry within the brain.


The brain is selfcontained in some functions as the memory of a single event.


The brain is covered by three membranes, the meniges. The brain is covered with cerebrospinal fluid. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves extend from the brain. The hindbrain is divided into two medulla and cerebellum. Essential to life is control impulse to life in control impulse to the intercostals muscles and diaphragm permitting breathing. There is no conscious control over the medulla oblongata although it can be modified.


The cerebellum consists of two hemispheres. It's function is coordinating muscle activity by receiving impulses from the motor area. These impulses then travel down the spinal cord as well as enter the cerebellum. The cerebellum. The cerebellum will then correct information and direct the impulses to the forebrain if necessary.


The midbrain relays impulse from the forebrain, hindbrain, and between forebrain an eyes. The midbrain aids in the maintenance of balance.


The reticular formation are nerves that run through the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. The reticular formation awaken the brain to sensation that are not usually perceived.


The forebrain is the cerebrum. It consists of two hemispheres divided into four lobes: 1. frontal 2. parietal 3. occipital 4. temporal. Also included are the thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and the pineal gland.


The volume of the white matter is 1350 ml. in the structure without a great deal of demonstrable function. The visual cortex is present which is essential for sight.


To process visual information, rods and cones synapse in the retina with bipolar cells, which synapse with bipolar cells which synapse with ganglion cells. The ganglion cells fire at a steady rate even in the dark. A small amount of light may increase or decrease firing. The ganglion will increase or decease its activity according to the spot on the retina in the degree of concentricity of the spot of light on the retina or reverse.


Light shining on off areas trigger bipolar cells that emit an inhibitory transmitter at the ganglions stimulated by on areas. Diffuse light stimulates off and on areas canceling each other. The optic nerve does not tell the brain light is being detected rather that contrast of light and dark, in effect shapes.


Other complex functions complete sight at the visual cortex.


The peripheral nervous system is divided into the sensory somatic system and automatic system. Sensory and motor fibers run to and from the CNS and the rest of the body.


The sensor somatic system contains two parts of cranial nerves which are mixed chiefly from external stimulus. Impulses travel from receptors to the CNS. Impulses are sent to the skeletal muscles.


The nerve impulses travel down the motor neurons of the SSS cause skeletal fibers to contract bodily movement occurs. All conscious awareness and or motor activity operate through the sensory somatic system.


The Automatic Nervous System contains sensory and motor neurons lying between the CNS especially the hypothalamus and certain organs, heart, and glands as the endocrine exocrine.


The ANS acts involuntarily. A difference to the previous system is the two groups of motor neurons. Two groups of motor neurons are used to stimulate effectors instead of one. Preganglion neurons arise in the CNS and connect to a ganglion. At this position they synapse with postganglionic neurons which connect to the effector.


The ANS has two subdivisions; the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.


In the sympathetic nervous system preganglionic motor systems arise into the spinal cord. They exit from a central root of a spinal nerve and pass into sympathetic ganglion. The ganglion lie organized on two chains parallel to the spinal cord.


Three functions are possible: 1. synapse with postganglionic neurons which re enter the spinal nerve then pass out to sweat glands then walls of bloods vessels. 2. Pass up or down the sympathetic chain and synapse postganglionic neurons in ganglion 3. leave the ganglion by the cord to spinal viscera. Some nerves run towards the adrenal medulla.


Noradrenaline and adrenaline secreted by the glands raises heartbeat, blood pressure and conversion of glycogen into glucose. These secretions effect cells throughout the bloodstream.


The parasympathetic nervous systems, the vagus nerves, the ten cranial nerves are the main mirror in this system. The vagus nerves arise in the medulla oblongata. Each preganglionic parasymphatic neuron synapse with a few postganglionic neurons near or in a muscle gland. Stimulation of these nerves governs a slowing of heartbeat, construction of blood vessels and measured flow of blood towards the skin and other functions. Acetocholine is the chemical substance released. Meditation can somewhat control function of this system contrary to it's name.


The human skeleton is made of cartilage and bone. 206 bones attach at joints. Are held together by ligaments. Movement is facilitated by antagonistic work accomplished by a flexor and extensor muscle. Muscle is attached to it's upper end origin. The lower insertion tapers into a tendon.


Skeletons supply defense and support to soft organs as the skull protecting the brain. The central marrow of some bones (sternum, pelvis, ribs) manufacture red and white blood cells.


Skeletal muscles are composed of fiber. This gives rise to the name striated muscle. A single fiber is packed with myofibrils. They are stacked lengthwise and run the entire length of the fiber. These myofibrils are within a liquid cytoplasm containing nucleus, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. The many nuclei define the fiber as a sycytium a mass of cytoplasm formed by a fusion of cells. The myofibril are a centrical array of filament made of protein, myosin and actin.


The functional physiology is the motor unit. All motor neurons leading to skeletal muscles have branching axons each which terminate in a neuromuscular junction with a a single muscle fiber. The nerve impulse passing down a single motor neuron triggers contraction in the terminator of the muscle fiber. This minimum unit is the motor unit. The function of muscle and it's performance is also interdependent on chemical coordination. The number of motor units controls the strength of contraction. Even at rest the muscle is partially contracted.


ATP is the source of energy for all cellular work. The metabolism of the phosphate bonding is the source of the chemical energy. Muscle contraction produces heat for possible work. The energy in the bond is used for contracting. ADP and phosphate result resynthesized. In ADP muscle wok is for a maximum of 1.5 seconds ascending mechanistically to respiration and ATP production. The lactic acid buildup and loss of ph produce fatigue.


The oxygen debt must then be restored for normal synthesis.


ATP is at best 40% efficient. The rest of it's energy is released as heat, allowing in animals homoeostatic maintenance.


Cardiac muscle is made of striated muscle. Contraction occurs involuntarily with a synapse of glucose and oxygen. Death to a portion of radial muscle results from deprivation. Cardiac muscle has a larger refractory than relaxation period. Smooth muscle is not striated with a single nucleus. Such contains filaments of actin and myosin. It's contraction is spontaneous.


Parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release acetylcholine as motor neurons of the sensory somatic system. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons release noradrenaline. The result is antagonistic. ACH stimulates muscle. Noradrenaline inhibits activity in certain muscles which in others the opposite is true. Smooth muscle lines the wall of all organs and blood vessels.


Behavior can be described as activity that alters the relationship between the organism and environment. Internal stimulus is often facilitated by a response. Motivators are often the cause of the behavior. Behaviors are innate or learned.


Plant behaviorism appears to be innate. Tropism are movements that are determined by the direction in which the stimulus strikes the plant. Plants do not have nervous systems. Nastic movements are generalized. An example of thermonasty is the opening of a flower on a warm day.


A taxis is a response that moves away from a stimulus at some angle. Chemotaxis are a response towards some chemical substance. The internal metabolism of the chemical is not necessary. Phototaxis is a movement towards or away from a source of light.


The simple reflex is an innate response for animals with nervous systems. A flexor reflex is a response such as the rapid removal of a hand from fire a stretch reflex is the response of a tap on the knee. The combination of the reflexes is an aid in aid in balance.


Instincts are complex patterns of behaviors that are innate inflexible, and are beneficial in adaptation to an environment. An elaborate pattern of activities may participate from instincts. In this manner there is a contrast with the simple reflex. Nest building and spider webs are examples of instinctive behaviors.


Instinctive behavior usually lies in the promotion of the survival of species.


Mating is facilitated by the release of hormones to the hypothalamus.


Signals that trigger instinct are called releasers. Stars that aid European warblers in navigation are releasers. Biological clocks often regulate certain activities such as maturity and menstrual cycles.


Learned behaviors are acquired and may be permanent and is a modification in the individual.


Imprinting is a highly socialized and learned behavior. This derived from experience and is occurred from a stimulus.


Konrad Lorenz has found that goosling during a critical short period after birth will follow a reasonable sized object emitting sounds as if it were it's mother the goosling show a predisposition towards this object it's whole life as is observable in maturity the object functions as the center of sexual drives.


Habituation is learning to not respond to a stimulus. An animal at first may respond to a source similar to a car passing in the vicinity. After more cars pass in the vicinity during a period of days then months the response is habituated. The reaction to the cars is limited.


The conditioned reflex is response that as a result of a experience comes to be caused by a different stimulus than it's origin.


Pavlov's dog gives one insight into conditioning. Food placed into a a dog's mouth causes salivation upon ringing a bell every time food was placed in the mouth. The dog eventually became conditioned to salivate every time the bell was rung regardless of the presence of food. The conditioned response is the substitute of the original stimulus.


Conditioning occurs most efficiently when:


1. The unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus are presented frequently together in the environment.


2. When there are no distractions in the environment.


3. A reward is presented for the performance of the response.


Instrumental conditioning or the more commonly used term operant conditioning is also a description for this type of reinforcement in behavior modification.


Maze problems involve the advancement of alternatives by animals with bilaterally symmetrical nervous systems being then are exposed to a system of rewards or punishments such as a simple flatworm which are able to navigate a simple T maze towards a reward of food.


Motivation is the source of drives, trial and error learning and involves perspectives where an animal gains some insight, gains some cognition after some failed attempt at solving a problem. A concept is learned when the entity is successful completing a correct choice when faced with disparate positive and negative award selections.


The learning of abstractions necessitates a concept of middleness. The organism responds to an idea that is more attributable to faculty of intelligence that is not present in lower life forms. Inductive reasoning involves learning the general specific from concrete experience then leading to a general universal principle. Deductive reasoning involves applying the general universal principles to specific situations.


Two theories can be postulated for memory: 1. Dynamic 2. DNA.


Dynamic memory states that the memory is dynamic in the sense that sensations give rise to impulses that circulate indefinitely in neurons in the CNS. Memory is not localized. Dynamic memory must always be active.


The RNA theory postulates that memory is genetically encoded. Proteins have also suggested RNA content rises from age 3 to 40 remains constant until 55 or 60 and then declines rapidly.


Origin of species involves two changes: 1. Gradual change in phenotype and genotype. 2. The formation of new species.


Species are defined in taxonomical groupings of actual or potential inbreeding populations which do not breed with other groups even when the opportunity is present.


Isolation is important. This mechanism reduces selection pressure and intraspecies variability. The variability of geography is an important factor. Subspecies of population may occur. The lack of inbreeding gives rise to speciation.


Survival of the fittest postulates competition between species and the reunion of a subspecies.


Population may increase selection pressure one subspecies may increase and may be examined the opposite is further specialization leading to a lessening of completion. This can be an evolutionary step. This can be considered evolutionary step.


Polyplodity for instant reproduction isolation.


Meisosis in polyploid individuals and produces genetics that are futile one another but not the parent. Hybrids may be sterile in plants and found rarely in animals.


Convergent evolution is noted when certain species, fish, whales or woodchucks and wombats appear to have close relation thus termed convergent evolution.


The family tree of life:


1. Prokaryote evolved Byrophyte


2. Eukaryote


3. Vascular


4. Ptersopsids


5. Gymnosperms


6. Angiosperms


7. Sponge Phylum Poriferia


8. Coridaria Phylum Coridaria


9. Flatworms Phylum Phatynelmiathes


10. Roumdworms Phylum Ashelminthes


11. Annelid Worms Phylum Annelioa


12. Mollusks


13. Aniphods


14. Echinoderms


Invertaebrates


15. Ostracoderms - Lampreys


16. Placoderms - Sharks Rays


17. Bony Fish


Polenoiscosrds - Modern Ray Fish


Modern Lung Fish


Crossoptergyms


18. Amphibians


19. Frogs - Toads - Salamanders Reptiles - Amphibian


20. Cotyloosours


21. Plesiaurs


22. Thextrosaurs - extinct


23. Thecordant


Psychology


Psychology is the field of medical science that deals and investigates the field of personality. This termed psyche and it's study is a deterministic science arguing the origins of life from inorganic chemicals. This then supports the development of neurobiological systems towards the theory of chemical based personality. This aspect is basically developmental starting from genetics progressively arguing an investigation of a series of phases from infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, seniority and death.


Psychology has basically two encampments; as for simple purposes we shall call the two clinical 1. Psychology 2. Behaviorism. Undemonstrable metaphysical first are possibly implied in clinical psychology while rejected more in behaviorism for more measurable objective inductive methods as a determinant for analytic behavior than more subjective deductive arguments.


Behaviorism is more concerned with how learning occurs and its modification. Behaviorism rejects the study of the mind in the research of humans for scientific verification of objective, manifest observations that are independently verifiable.


Mobility in the organism is stated as a fact as the result of a stimulus and it's effect on the being. This is denominated operant conditioning.


Sigmund Freud born in 1856 is Switzerland is generally considered the world's most pre eminent psychologist. He is also the founder of the school of Psycho Analysis.


Psycho Analysis deals with a theory of psyche, mental activity, it's localization, the nervous system, and consciousness. These elements for a psychical apparatus.


The Id is the oldest identifiable part of this structure. The Id is genetic and is inherent at birth. The Id is unconscious. Structurally such is designed around a cortical layer for protection.


It is the foundation of a three part schema: 1. Id 2. Superego 3. Ego. Libido is the sum totality of this three part structure.


The Ego lies intermediary between the Id and the external world. The Ego contains control over voluntary muscular movement and is concerned with self preservation.


The Ego operates on the platform of four functions.


1. Memory: Storing of experience


2. Flight: Avoiding unpleasant events


3. Adaptation: Compensating for events


4. Activity: Modification of behaviors and thought


The Ego strives to avoid pain. It is always seeking pleasure in a linear chronological manner with regards to the height of actual experience.


The Super Ego is formed in the individual from one's parental contact during the first five years of life or infancy. The Ego to Super Ego relationship is defined by personal contact and all events occurring to the individual during this time span. This is the formation of a social milieu and is concerned with substitutions in parenting.


Freud discusses the Id as an expression of life in an individual. Freud is most famous for a theory of instincts where the distinction of the instinctive force into simple format denominated Eros. There are somatic demands upon the mind. This refers to pressures that appear to be evolved and carried over from single celled plants animals towards the full development of tissues plus organ systems specifically in man but more likely prevalent in all genus species.


Eros is divided into it's other half which is the destructive instinct (manifest) and the death instinct (internal). The preservation of the species of the species. This is a contrast between ego love and object love.


Eros basically desires to unite pressure things. The destructive instinct simply desires objects and wishes to return to it's origins; death, the inorganic state of matter. The two are in a constant battle for supremacy.


Freud interestingly points out that eating food through out that eating food through one’s mouth is a destructive act endeavoring to incorporate the food. Sex is an act of aggression but also an act of union. The incorrect synthesis or fusion of the forces leads to Freud's theory of deviance and criminality. There is also a inference to all neurosis, psychosis, abnormality in psychical activity.


The total energy of this apparatus is named libido. The destructive instinct lies internally and is unobservable. It anguishes silently to the unseen eyes tormenting an individual (sado masochism) and is only seen outwardly as the destructive instinct (masochism). The death of the individual lies in his death and species to the external world.


Fixation occurs in erotogenic zones such as the mouth, anus, genetics, and other organs or systems that may have an evolutionary effect on the perception of sensations that govern mental activity as well as motility.


The libido of the Id Superego is the relation to the ego and is also a storehouse. The Ego transfers ideas of objects to transfer Narcissistic Ego into object libido.


Libido forces mortify. It is possible for object love to become great to the extent that it shall dominate or replace the Ego and Super Ego in psychical activity.


Freudian psychology tends to define abnormality in the development area, lack of skill, and rationality. In relation to this issue, preconciousness seems to evolve around the sexual function.


Sexual life begins at birth, at birth, is diphasic, or that such bears a relationship to maturation in mammals. An argument would appear to be similar as they are closely related as all dogs as dogs and all cows as cows.


Sexual life begins with the oral phase divided into four parts:


1. Oral: teeth appearing - sadistic


2. Anal: Sadistic - excretory - aggression


3. Phallic: Cognition of sexual organs


4. Genital


After this organization period the individual arises to an Oedipal Complex (male) and Electra Complex (female).


A child's first erotic object is the breast of his mother. This external he wishes to have his mother as his lover. He is conscious of his sexual organ and engages in manual. Stimulation. is father in his competitor. His desire is to be the only lover of his mother. He is conscious of his sexual organ and engages in manual stimulation. His father is his direct competitor. His desire is to be the only lover of his mother. To prevent this the individual is threatened. A castration complex evolves. He desires to slay his father to lie with his mother alone. This is the Oedipal Complex.


A young girl has been given a different genital at birth. She is envious of the male organ. Genital manipulation occurs. Her dissatisfaction leads to the identification of her self. It is possible she may evolve into normal sexuality. Manifest homosexuality may occur. She will blame her mother for her lack of complete masculinity. An attraction to her father is possible. She may take the identity of her mother’s relationship with her father. She may desire to have a baby within her body to compensate for her lack of a masculine genital. This position or complex is less damaging in a female. It is denominated the Electra Complex.


James B. Watson is credited for a great deal of thinking that is more applicably termed behaviorism.


The behaviorist concept is based on stimulus (mental state) and response stimulus. Response laws will enable the prediction of behavior from the antecedent condition that exists before the response is exhibited. Reinforcement may have a greater credence with some members of behaviorist thinking.


Herein are two propositions and six behavioral approaches of the behaviorist B.F. Skinner who has contributed ground breaking work on threshold and learning.


The two propositions:


1. An organism will repeat a behavior for which it is rewarded, and avoid one for which it is punished. Positive reinforcement is reward, negative is punishment and non reinforcement refers to behavior being ignored.


2. Complicated behavior patterns as skillful tasks are complicated gradually. The gaining of efficiency occurs over time.


Now six facets of Skinner’s behavioral approach are presented.


1. Indifference to the origin of symptoms with greater attention to specific goals or modifications.


2. Unconcern for the patients thoughts of oneself. These behaviors have tangible value for producing change.


3. A grounding in learning the comprehension of observable factors that operate in the acquisition of behavior.


4. Therapy involves the idea conditioning.


5. Learning and behavior acquisition follow stimulus response schema.


6. Problem behavior develops through miseducation. It is not to be viewed as an illness. Recognition that behavior is to be understood as problematic is not to be done through social definition.


Skinner has made interesting commentary concerning man, as autonomous man in the application of behaviorist thinking. Man must perpetuate his existence from promoting freedom and dignity to the creation of just physical and social environs.


Man is a product of his environment. The use of tyrannies and punishment in concert with other similar repertoire are stunting cultural development.


Skinner argues the literature of freedom of making just value judgments in concert with a technology of behavior to develop man and society.


To explain a negative behavior of an individual we attribute these acts to a person we cannot see. This is due to our lack of understanding; relevant antecedents.


Autonomous man is not served in this manner. Skinner states, "The task of a science is to explain how the behavior of a person as a physical system is related to the conditions under which the human species evolves and which the individual lives."


Activities rests on contingencies and we must look and create positive contingencies in the environment to produce consequences is operant behavior which can be studied; arranging environs are easy to formulate and change while genetic man is not.


Negative reinforcers (stimulus) are things objects turn from. A person escapes or avoids punishment examples are the escape from slavery, emigration, defection from a government, being an apostate of a religion or by becoming a dropout of society.


The literature of freedom has a goal to help persons alleviate attack or help these persons escape. The legitimacy of government or religious agency may be brought into questions.


Herein argues Skinner is a conflict between the controllers, tyrants and controlled victims. The literature is political reinforcement.


The interplay in this continuum is largely the basis for the formation of man's freedom.


Man's dignity is reassured when credit is given for skills and achievements accurately performed. The literature of dignity is concerned with preserving this value.


Skinner argues a utilitarian perspective of punishment. Punishment removes awkward, dangerous, unwanted behavior from one's repertoire on the assumption that the behavior is less likely to be repeated.


Punishable behavior is minimized by creating circumstances in which the deviant acts are less likely to occur.


People quickly learn to become skillful controllers. Torture is still used in a civilized world. The agencies, as the minister of justice, soldier, policeman, and local informant are all to common with the contingencies to act. Lesser non punitive activity are to be championed in the literature of freedom and dignity.


Things are good (positively reinforcing) or bad (negatively reinforcing) primarily on the contingencies of survival of which the species evolved.


Intentional control for the good of others is more powerful when exercised by religious, governmental, economic, and educational organizations. Laws are useful for they specify the behavior to be punished.


To alleviate the deviant behavior is to identify all goods reserved when one is controlled for the good of others. The manipulation of reinforcers is susceptible together with conditioned reinforcers as praise or blame.


The culture evolves along social contingencies. The reinforcer that appears in the contingencies are values.


A culture is selected by it's adaptation to an environ, thus determining genetic endowment when the survival of a culture is threatened a group or institution may emerge to protect the goods of the culture from this genetic mutation.


The social environment is what is called culture; thus it shapes and maintains the behavior of it's members.


Culture is experimental space. The chance to live in a simple format may never exist again. The technology of behavior is ethically neutral and does not solve all of societies problem is it the blame. This technology does shift the determinant from autonomous man to the environment.


The term psychology is dominated by Freudians. Some authorities argue that behaviorism should be classified separately as it is an external operation. This writing appears to reflect the Freudian dominance of taxonomy but not of substance.